First Principles of Natural Philosophy: Being a Familiar Introduction to the Study of that Science

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Harper & Brothers, 1842 - Physics (Elements) - 530 pages
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Contents

Attraction ib 22 Definition of Body ib 23 Changes in Bodies ib 24 Indestructibility of Matter
32
to 28 Properties of Bodies 33
33
Mechanical Forms of Bodies
34
Coloured Rings by Reflection 35
35
Expansibility
37
Thermometer
38
FORCES EaUILIBRIDM MOTION
39
Equilibrium ib 34 Estimate of Forces ib 35 Point of Application and Direction of Forces
40
Resultant and Components ib 37 Mechanic Powers
44
Combination of Levers
46
Mode of Bearing Weights
47
Wheel and Axle
48
Pulley
50
Combination of Pulley and Wheel and Axle
52
Inclined Plane
53
Wedge ib 47 Screw
54
Hunters Screw
55
Endless Screw
56
Applications of the Screw
57
Relative Motion
58
Uniform Motion
59
Velocity ib 54 Variable Motion
60
Accelerating Forces
61
Curvilinear Motion
63
6465
64
Action and Reaction
66
Relation of Moving Masses
67
to 70 Collision 6870
68
Use of Machines
71
Rational Mechanics
73
Division of the Subject
74
SION
75
Absolute Strength
76
to 89 Arches 8286
82
Cast Iron Arches
87
Groined Arches
90
Suspension Bridges
95
Resistance to a Crushing Force
96
Cohesion of Solid Bodies ib 99 Effect of Liquids on Cohesion
99
Resistance to Torsion
100
Friction of Sliding Bodies
101
Friction of Rolling Bodies
102
Practical uses of Friction
104
Capillary Attraction
105
Endosmose and Exosmose
108
ATTRACTION OF GRAVITATION
109
Centre of the Attractive Force of the Earth Ill
110
Apparent Inequality in the Centre of Gravity ib 112 Law of the Action of Gravity ib 113 Deflection of the Plumbline
111
Fall of Heavy Bodies and Atwoods Machine
114
Motion of Falling Bodies
115
Motion of Bodies thrown Upward ib 117 Experiments on the Fall of Bodies
116
Law of Universal Gravitation
117
Proof of the Revolution of the Earth ib 121 Effect of the Centrifugal Force on the Figure of the Earth JJj 122 Amount of the Flattening of the Ear...
120
Definition of the Centre of Gravity c j 124 Indifferent Stable and Tottering Equilibrium
122
Experimental Methods of finding the Centre of Gravity _
125
Equilibrium of Bodies on Horizontal Bases
126
Equilibrium of Bodies on Inclined Bases
128
Measme of Gravity
129
Equilibrium of Bodies resting on Points l
130
Steelyard
131
Platform Balance ib Motions of Rotation and Translation
132
Centre of Gyration
133
Axis of Permanent Rotation
135
MOTION OF PROJECTILES
136
Military Projectiles and Ordnance
139
Mode of Determining the Initial Velocity
140
Measure of the Explosive Force of Gunpowder
141
Initial Velocity of Military Projectiles ib 148 Relation of the Velocity to the Length of Piece ib 149 Relation of the Velocity to the Weight of Ball and...
142
Law of the Airs Resistance ib 151 Deviation of Projectiles from the Vertical Plane
143
The Ricochet
144
MOTION OF BODIES ON INCLINED SURFACES AND THE PEN DULUM
145
Laws of Motion on Inclined Surfaces ib 157 Simple Pendulum
147
Motion of a Pendulum in Circular Arcs ib 160 Compound Pendulum and Centre of Oscillation
148
Applications of the Pendulum
149
Bordas Experimental Pendulum
153
Katers Experimental Pendulum
154
Results of Experiments with the Pendulum
155
Application of the Pendulum as a Standard of Measure
156
EQUILIBRIUM OF GRAVITATING LIQUIDS
157
Art of Levelling Note
158
Equilibrium of a Liquid in bent Tubes
159
Equilibrium of Liquids of different Densities
160
Lateral and Upward Pressure of Liquids ii
161
Pressure of Liquids on Vertical or Inclined Ba ses
163
Solids immersed in Liquids
166
Mode of obtaining the Weight of a given Bulk of a Liquid
168
Applications of the Method of Specific Gravities
170
Corrections to be applied in Specific Gravities
171
EQUILIBRIUM AND PRESSURE OF ELASTIC FLUIDS
172
Common Pump
173
Syphon
174
Suction
175
Equilibrium and Specific Gravity of Elastic Fluids
178
Buoyancy of the Air
180
Specific Gravity of Gases
181
Structure of the Barometer
184
Motion of Liquids in Pipes and open Channels
190
Motion of Air through Orifices in thin Plates
196
Reflected Sounds
205
224 Harmonic Sounds 2tf 225 Organs of Voice and Hearing ib 226 Mode of exhibiting the Waves that produce Sound
210
HEAT
212
Law of Expansion by Heat ib 229 Experimental Proofs of the Law
213
Relation of the Expansions of the three Classes of Bodies
214
Application of the Law to the Construction of the Thermometer
216
Examination of the Relation between Degrees of the Thermometer and equal Changes of Tem perature
219
Laws of the Expansion of the different Classes of Bodies
221
Pyrometer
222
Breguets Thermometer
224
SelfRegistering Thermometers ib 238 Motion of Liquids unequally Heated
225
LiaUEFACTION AND EVAPORATION
226
Heat the Cause of Fluidity ib 240 Latent Heat of Liquids
228
Measure of the Latent Heat of Vapour
229
Effect of Pressure on Boiling
230
Laws of the Elasticity and Equilibrium of Va pour
233
Spontaneous and Artificial Evaporation
234
Hygrometers
235
Applications of the Doctrine of Latent Heat
236
Description of the Steamengine Note
238
True Character of the Gases
242
Definition of Electricity ib 262 Conductors and Nonconductors
255
Distribution of Electricity
257
Law of the Decrease of the Electrical Force
259
Experiment on Induced Electricity
260
Deductions from the Experiment
261
Electrical Hypotheses ib 272 Electrical Machines
263
Use of the Electrical Machine
264
Phenomena of Electricity
266
The Electroscope
267
The Condenser
268
The Electrophorus
269
The Leyden Vial
271
Effects of the Electric Shock
273
Atmospheric Electricity
274
Identity of Lightning and Electricity
275
Lightning Rods
276
galvanism
277
Electricity developed by Contact ib 284 Voltaic Pile and Couronne des Tasses
278
Galvanic Apparatus
280
Apparatus of Daniell c
281
Chemical Effects of Galvanism
282
Relative Intensity of Galvanism
285
Galvanic Deflagration ib 290 Piles of the Second Order
287
MAGNETISM
288
Native Magnet ib 293 Communicated Magnetism
289
Magnetic Polarity ib 295 Magnetic Declination
290
Magnetic Dip
291
Magnetic Instruments
292
Intensity of Magnetism
295
Local Disturbances of the Magnetic Force
296
Laws of Terrestrial Magnetism
298
Modes of observing Magnetic Phenomena ib 301 Magnetic Poles Equator c
300
ELECTROMAGNETISM
302
Modes of developing Electromagnetism t4 304 Effects produced by breaking and restoring the Connexion with the Poles
303
Radiating and Tangential Direction of the two Forces
304
Galvanometer
306
MAGNETOELECTRICITY
307
Magnetoelectric Apparatus ib VI THERMOELECTRICITY
308
LIGHT
309
311 Sensation of Light ib 312 Propagation of Light ib 313 Theories of Optics
310
Visual Angle Focus and Pencil of Rays ib 315 Refraction
311
Experiment on Reflected Light ib 318 Law of Reflection
312
The Plane Mirror
313
Curved Mirrors
314
Reflection
316
REFRACTED LIGHT
317
Phenomena of Refraction ib 323 Law of Refraction
322
Determination of the Ratio of Refraction
324
Lenses 326 Theory of Refraction
325
Refractive Power of different Bodies ib 329 Effect of Media of variable Densities
326
ANALYSIS OF LIGHT
328
Phenomena produced by a Prism ib 331 Composition of Light
330
Dark Lines in the Spectrum
331
Effects of reuniting the Colours
332
Dispersion in extraordinary Refraction
333
Mode of counteracting Dispersion ib iv vision
334
Structure of the Eye ib 337 Eye considered as an Optical Instrument
336
Inversion of the Image on the Retina
337
Short and Long Sightedness
338
Accidental Colours
339
OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
340
Microscope ib 344 Astronomic Telescope
342
Achromatic Object Glasses and Eye Pieces
343
Galileos Telescope
345
Reflecting Telescopes
346
Camera Obscura
347
Solar Microscope
349
Lucernal Microscope and Magic Lantern ib 351 Camera Lucida ib 352 Micrometers
350
INFLEXION OF LIGHT AND THE COLOURS OF PLATES
351
Coloured Rings by Transmission
354
Phenomena of double Refraction ib 357 Hypotheses of Newton and Malus
355
Polarization by Reflection
356
Polarization by Transmission
357
Polarization by double Refraction
358
Colours of Polarized Light
361
Phenomena of Polarized Light ib VIII EXPLANATION OP NATURAL OPTICAL PHENOMENA
362
The Rainbow 364 Haloes and Parhelia
363
Blue Colourof the Sky
365
RELATIONS OP LIGHT TO HEAT MAGNETISM AND AFFIN ITY
366
Relations of Light to other Physical Agents ib 369 Photography
367
ASTRONOMY
368
Diurnal Motion
369
Globular Figure of the Earth 372
372
Celestial Sphere and its Circles
373
Timekeepers
380
Altitude Instruments ib 377 Plumb Line Level and Principle of Reflection
382
Micrometers
383
Refraction ib 380 Eflects of Refraction
384
Twilight a 382 Parallax
386
Modes of determining Parallax
387
THE FIXED STARS
389
Constellations ib 386 Magnitudes and Classification of the Stars
391
Annual Parallax ib 389 Proper Motion
393
Rotation of the Earth
397
SYSTEM OP THE UNIVERSE
398
Apparent Motion of the Sun ib 396 Elliptical apparent Motion of the Sun
401
Proofs of the Revolution of the Earth around the Sun
403
Figure c of the Earths Orbit
406
Effects of Gravitation on the Earths Motion ib 401 Cause of the Seasons ib 402 Ptolemaic Tychonic and Copernican Systems
409
THE moon
411
Phases and Motion of the Moon ib 404 Cause of the Phases
415
Irregularities f the Moons Motion
417
Cause of Eclipses
420
Lunar Eclipses
422
Solar Eclipses
424
Number of Eclipses
425
Names and Number of the Planets ib 412 Venus
426
Mercury
432
Comparison of the Ptolemaic Copernican and Tychonic Systems
433
Mars
435
Jupiter
436
Saturn
437
Herschel ib 419 Motions of Jupiter Saturn and Herschel
440
The four small Planets tft 421 Relative Position of the Orbits of the Planets ib 422 Laws of Kepler
441
Rotation of the Planets
442
FIGURE AND MAGNITUDE OP
452
Civil and Astronomic Year
458
HAIN SNOW AND DEW
470
Dew
476

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