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acclimation acid activated carbon adsorption airlift airstripping ammonia aquatic animals backwashing bacteria bicarbonate ions Biol biological filter biological filtration brine bubbles buffer calcium carbonate carbon dioxide carrying capacity cent chemical filtration chlorine clean closed systems colloids column compounds concentration contactor copper culture system culture water decrease denitrification detritus diatomaceous earth Diatomaceous earth filters disease dissolved organics dissolved oxygen distilled water effects efficiency effluent elements excretion Figure filter bed filter plate fishes free CO2 fresh water freshwater systems gravel grains heterotrophic increases influent ion exchange resins Kawai lift pipe magnesium marine systems mechanical filter mechanical filtration metabolism mineral carbonates nitrate nitrification nitrogen normal oxidation oxygen consumption ozone parasites precipitate precoat rapid sand filters reduced removal respiration salinity salts sea water sleeve sodium solubility solution species specific gravity substances sulfate surface area Table tank tap water temperature tion toxic un-ionized ammonia volume warm-water