Fixed and Flapping Wing Aerodynamics for Micro Air Vehicle Applications

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AIAA, 2001 - Aerodynamics - 574 pages
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Contents

II Previous Work
288
B Experimental Studies
289
III Scope of Present Work
290
V Wing Motion
291
VII Velocity Field Data Analysis
293
VIII Force Measurements
294
IX Results and Discussion
295
A Velocity Data
296

II Curvilinear Coordinates and Equations
15
III Equivalent Inviscid Flow
16
IV Entrainment Equation and ViscousInviscid Coupling
17
VI Turbulent Transport Equation
18
VII Real Viscous Flow Profiles
19
C Integral Thicknesses
20
D Laminar Skin Friction and Dissipation Integral
21
IX HigherOrder Corrections
22
C Pressure Defect Integrals
23
D Shear Stress Defect Integral
24
B Corner Compatibility Relations
25
C Panel System Formulation
26
D PanelViscous Variable Relations
27
E Wake Trajectory
29
XII Results A Flat Plate Drag
30
B Very Low Reynolds Number Airfoil
31
XIII Conclusions
33
Analysis and Design of Airfoils for Use at UltraLow Reynolds Numbers
35
II Computational Analysis Methods
36
III Flowfleld Assumptions
38
IV Grid Topology
39
V Comparison with Experiment
40
VI Effects of Reynolds Number and Geometry Variations on Airfoil Performance
41
B Maximum Section Thickness
44
C Effect of Camber
50
D Effect of LeadingEdge Shape and Constant Thickness
53
VII Airfoil Optimization
56
VIII Conclusions
59
Adaptive Unstructured Meshes for Solving the NavierStokes Equations for LowChordReynoldsNumber Flows
61
I Introduction
62
II Approach
63
III The Finite Element Approximation
66
IV Fluid Solver
67
V Grid Generation and Adaptive Refinement
70
VI Results
73
VII Database Validation
76
IX Conclusions
79
Acknowledgment
80
Wind Tunnel Tests of Wings and Rings at Low Reynolds Numbers
83
II Effect of Aspect Ratio and Planform on the Aerodynamic Lift and Drag
84
III Effect of Low Reynolds Numbers on the Lift and Drag of Ring Airfoils
86
References
90
Effects of Acoustic Disturbances on Low Re Aerofoil Flows
91
II Experimental Arrangements
94
B Tunnel Environment Measurements
95
C New StrainGauge Balance
97
E Aerofoil Models
98
B Aerodynamic Trends with Reynolds Number
99
C The Effect of Background Acoustic Level
102
F Effect of Acoustics on Aerodynamic Forces
105
IV Discussion
106
V Potential Use of Sound to Improve Performance
110
VI Conclusions
111
Acknowledgments
112
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Low Aspect Ratio Wings at Low Reynolds Numbers
115
I Introduction
116
II Apparatus
117
C Force Balance
118
D Data Acquisition
119
IV Uncertainty
120
VI Discussion of Results
121
A Comparison of Lift
124
B Flow Visualization
132
C Drag
135
VII VortexLattice Method
137
VIII Conclusions
139
References
140
Systematic Airfoil Design Studies at Low Reynolds Numbers
143
II Design Process
144
B Eppler Code
145
III Parametric Studies in Airfoil Design
147
B SG604x Series
155
C S607x Series
156
IV Summary and Conclusions
164
Acknowledgments
166
Numerical Optimization and WindTunnel Testing of Low Reynolds Number Airfoils
169
I Introduction
170
II Aerodynamic Model
171
B Correlation of the Critical Amplification Factor
173
IV Numerical Optimization of Low Reynolds Number Airfoils
176
C Optimization Examples
177
D Experimental Verification and Discussion
178
V Experimental Investigations on Very Low Reynolds Number Airfoils
182
VI Conclusion and Outlook
188
Unsteady Stalling Characteristics of Thin Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number
191
II Experimental Methods
193
III Results and Discussion
196
B Frequency Content of the Fluctuating Lift
203
C The Role of the Separation Bubble
206
IV Summary and Conclusions
211
Acknowledgments
212
Part II Flapping and Rotary Wing Aerodynamics
215
Thrust and Drag in Flying Birds Applications to Birdlike Micro Air Vehicles
217
II Avian Flight Performance
219
B Dependence of Performance on Size and Design
220
III Thrust Generation
222
IV Drag Reduction
224
V Wing Shape
226
VI Conclusions
227
Acknowledgments
228
Lift and Drag Characteristics of Rotary and Flapping Wings
231
I Introduction
232
A BladeElement Analysis
233
B HighLift Mechanisms
235
C Applications of Insect Flight to Micro Air Vehicles
237
B Force Coefficients
238
C Wing Designs
239
A Evidence for a LeadingEdge Vortex
244
B MicroHelicopter MAVs
246
A Rational Engineering Analysis of the Efficiency of Flapping Flight
249
I Introduction
250
II The Influence of Wake Roll Up on Flapping Flight
253
B Numerical Results
255
III Minimum Loss Flapping Theory
258
B Inviscid Induced Power
260
C Viscous Profile Power
261
D Optimal Solution to the LargeAmplitude Flapping Problem
263
IV Results
264
B Flapping of a Rigid Wing at Low Reynolds Number
268
V Summary and Discussion
271
Acknowledgments
272
LeadingEdge Vortices of Flapping and Rotary Wings at Low Reynolds Number
275
I Introduction
276
II Computational Modeling of a Rotary Wing
277
III Numerical Accuracy
279
B LeadingEdge Vortex of Rotary Wing
281
V Conclusions
284
Acknowledgment
285
On the Flowfield and Forces Generated by a Flapping Rectangular Wing at Low Reynolds Number
287
B Force Data
299
X Conclusions
303
Experimental and Computational Investigation of Flapping Wing Propulsion for Micro Air Vehicles
307
I Introduction
308
B Equations of Motion
309
C Performance Criteria
310
III Plunging Airfoils
311
B Numerical Simulations
313
C Experimental Investigations
315
IV Pitching Airfoils
318
V Pitching and Plunging Airfoils
320
A Historical Perspective
321
B Numerical Simulations
323
VI Airfoil Combinations
324
B Numerical Simulations
325
C Experimental Investigations
326
VII Summary and Prospective
336
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Wings at Low Reynolds Number
341
I Introduction
343
B Reduced Frequency
351
D Added Mass
352
E Unsteady ThreeDimensional Wing
353
G Other Computational Fluid Dynamic Studies
354
B Unsteady Airfoil
358
C Dragonfly and Damselfly
360
D Other Insects
361
IV Geometrical Consideration of Blade Element Theory
363
B Wing or Blade Motion
365
C Stroke Plane
370
D Harmonic Analysis
371
E Left Wing
372
V Forces and Moments Acting on Beating Wings
374
B Blade Element Theory
379
C Centrifugal Force
382
F Equations of Motion
385
References
391
A Nonlinear Aeroelastic Model for the Study of Flapping Wing Flight
399
I Introduction
401
II Structural Analysis
405
III Aerodynamic and Inertial Forces and Moments
407
A Aerodynamic Forces and Moments
408
B Inertial Forces and Moments
412
D Rigid and Center Sections
413
F Bending and Twisting Moments
414
IV Damping
415
B Structural Damping
417
V Results and Discussion
419
A QuarterScale Model Wing Tests
420
B 1996 FullScale StaticFlapping Tests
421
C 1997 and 1998 Taxi Tests
422
VI Conclusions
427
References
428
Euler Solutions for a FiniteSpan Flapping Wing
429
I Introduction
430
II Numerical Method
432
III Investigations for TwoDimensional Flow
433
B Results and Validation
435
C Implementation of Wing Motion
439
IV Investigations for ThreeDimensional Flow
441
B Results for Pressure Distribution and Aerodynamic Coefficients
443
C Flowfield Results
446
V Conclusions
449
From Soaring and Flapping Bird Flight to Innovative Wing and Propeller Constructions
453
II Bionic Airfoil Construction
454
B Bionic Wingtips and Their Potential for Induced Drag Reduction
459
III Bionic Propeller
465
IV Conclusions
469
Acknowledgments
470
Passive Aeroelastic Tailoring for Optimal Flapping Wings
473
II Experimental Setup
475
B Video Synchronization
476
III Results
477
B Experimental Results
478
IV Conclusions
481
Acknowledgments
482
Shape Memory Alloy Actuators as Locomotor Muscles
483
I Introduction
484
II Brief Overview of SMA Actuators
486
III Thermomechanical Transformation Fatigue of SMA Actuators
488
IV Adaptive Control of SMA Actuator Wires
491
V Energy Considerations for SMA Actuators
494
VI SMA Actuators as Locomotor Muscles for a Biomimetic Hydrofoil
496
VII Conclusions
498
Part III Micro Air Vehicle Applications
501
Mesoscale Flight and Miniature Rotorcraft Development
503
A Hovering vs Forward Flight
504
B Rotating vs Flapping
506
II Approach
508
A Aerodynamic Design
509
B Rotor Fabrication
512
C Power Systems
513
D Control
514
E Sensors
515
IV Conclusions
516
References
517
Development of the Black Widow Micro Air Vehicle
519
III Multidisciplinary Design Optimization
520
IV Energy Storage
524
V Motors
525
VI Micropropeller Design
526
VII Airframe Structural Design
528
VIII Avionics
530
IX Video Camera Payload
531
X Stability and Control
532
XII Ground Control Unit
533
Acknowledgments
535
Computation of Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Micro Air Vehicle
537
I Introduction
538
III Description of the Micro Air Vehicle Model
539
IV Discussion of Results
540
B Effect of Fuselage
543
C Effect of Propeller
545
E Effect of Propeller
549
F Trajectory Simulation
550
V Summary and Conclusions
554
Optic Flow Sensors for MAV Navigation
557
B Optic Flow Sensors
559
III Description of the Optic Flow Sensor
560
A Generalized Model for Implementing Optic Flow Algorithms
561
C Fusion
564
D Implementation of a FirstGeneration Hybrid Sensor
565
E Implementation of a SecondGeneration Hybrid Sensor
566
V Initial InFlight Experiments
567
A Experiments with FirstGeneration Sensor on a Glider
568
B Experiments with the SecondGeneration Sensor on an Aircraft
570
VI NextGeneration Sensors
571
VII Conclusion
573
PROGRESS IN ASTRONAUTICS AND AERONAUTICS SERIES VOLUMES
575
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