## Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map ProjectionsAs long as there have been maps, cartographers have grappled with the impossibility of portraying the earth in two dimensions. To solve this problem mapmakers have created hundreds of map projections, mathematical methods for drawing the round earth on a flat surface. Yet of the hundreds of existing projections, and the infinite number that are theoretically possible, none is perfectly accurate. Flattening the Earth is the first detailed history of map projections since 1863. John P. Snyder discusses and illustrates the hundreds of known projections created from 500 B.C. to the present, emphasizing developments since the Renaissance and closing with a look at the variety of projections made possible by computers.The book contains 170 illustrations, including outline maps from original sources and modern computerized reconstructions. Though the text is not mathematically based, a few equations are included to permit the more technical reader to plot some projections. Tables summarize the features of nearly two hundred different projections and list those used in nineteenth-and twentieth-century atlases. "This book is unique and significant: a thorough, well-organized, and insightful history of map projections. Snyder is the world's foremost authority on the subject and a significant innovator in his own right."—Mark Monmonier, author of How to Lie with Maps and Mapping It Out: Expository Cartography for the Humanities and Social Sciences. |

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### Contents

III | 2 |

V | 5 |

VI | 6 |

VII | 9 |

VIII | 11 |

IX | 15 |

X | 17 |

XI | 30 |

XL | 126 |

XLI | 131 |

XLII | 134 |

XLIII | 135 |

XLIV | 139 |

XLV | 141 |

XLVI | 143 |

XLVII | 144 |

XII | 39 |

XIII | 41 |

XIV | 44 |

XV | 50 |

XVI | 52 |

XVII | 56 |

XIX | 57 |

XX | 58 |

XXI | 60 |

XXII | 61 |

XXIII | 63 |

XXIV | 66 |

XXV | 68 |

XXVI | 69 |

XXVII | 71 |

XXVIII | 75 |

XXIX | 77 |

XXX | 93 |

XXXI | 96 |

XXXIII | 97 |

XXXIV | 100 |

XXXV | 104 |

XXXVI | 105 |

XXXVIII | 113 |

XXXIX | 116 |

### Other editions - View all

Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections John P. Snyder No preview available - 1997 |

Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections John P. Snyder No preview available - 1997 |

Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections John P. Snyder No preview available - 1993 |

### Common terms and phrases

angles Arbitrary Atlas atlases azimuthal equal-area projection azimuthal equidistant projection azimuthal projection Bartholomew Bonne projection cartographic Cassini central meridian century circle circular arcs conformal map conformal projections coordinates curved cylindrical projection d'Avezac-Macaya developed distance distortion Eckert ellipsoid elliptical equal-area conic equal-area projection equally spaced equator equatorial equidistant conic projection equirectangular projection Figure flat-polar formulas Gall stereographic Geodetic globe globular projection gnomonic projection graticule Grinten hemisphere interrupted intersect jection Kavrayskiy Keuning Lambert azimuthal equal-area longitude map projections mathematical Maurer McBryde Mercator projection meridians and parallels modified Mollweide Nordenskiold 1889 North America North Pole O. S. Adams oblique Mercator orthographic parallels of latitude polyconic projection projection fig pseudocylindrical pseudocylindrical projection Ptolemy's Putnins radius Rand McNally rectangular regions reproduced retroazimuthal sinusoidal projection Snyder South sphere standard parallels stereographic projection straight lines tangent tion Tissot trans transverse Mercator true scale U.S. Coast U.S. Geological Survey Wagner Werner world map