Flood Warning, Forecasting and Emergency Response

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Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 15, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 303 pages
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Recent flood events in Europe, the USA and elsewhere have shown the devastating impact that flooding can have on people and property. Flood warning and forecasting systems provide a well-established way to help to reduce the effects of flooding by allowing people to be evacuated from areas at risk, and for measures to be taken to reduce damage to property. With sufficient warning, temporary defences (sandbags, flood gates etc) can also be installed, and river control structures operated to mitigate the effects of flooding.

Many countries and local authorities now operate some form of flood warning system, and the underlying technology requires knowledge across a range of technical areas, including rainfall and tidal detection systems, river and coastal flood forecasting models, flood warning dissemination systems, and emergency response procedures.

This book provides a comprehensive account of the flood forecasting, warning and emergency response process, including techniques for predicting the development of flood events, and for issuing appropriate warnings. Related topics, such as telemetry and information systems, and flood warning economics, are also discussed. For perhaps the first time, this book brings together in a single volume the many strands of this interesting multidisciplinary topic, and will serve as a reference for researchers, policy makers and engineers. The material on meteorological, hydrological and coastal modelling and monitoring may also be of interest to a wider audience.

 

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Contents

Introduction
1
12 The Nature of Flood Risk
8
122 Assessing Flood Risk
9
13 Emergency Response
13
14 The Role of Flood Forecasting
15
Flood Warning
19
Detection
20
211 Site Specific Observations
22
634 Data Based Methods
146
Coasts
148
72 ProcessBased Models
156
722 Surge Forecasting
157
723 Wave Forecasting
165
724 Shoreline Processes
167
73 DataBased Methods
169
732 Other Techniques
171

212 Remote Sensing
28
213 Weather Forecasting
33
22 River and Coastal Conditions
36
221 RiverTidal Level Monitoring
37
222 River Flow Monitoring
39
223 Wave Monitoring
42
23 Instrumentation Networks
44
232 Network Design
47
Thresholds
51
32 River and Coastal Thresholds
56
322 Simple Forecasting Techniques
61
33 Performance Monitoring
67
Dissemination
71
412 Flood Warning Areas
73
413 Organisational Issues
75
414 Control Rooms
77
42 Dissemination Techniques
79
422 Role of Information Technology
81
423 Warning Messages
84
43 Design and Implementation
87
Flood Forecasting
90
General Principles
93
52 Forecasting Systems
97
53 Data Assimilation
104
531 Error Prediction
106
532 State and Parameter Updating
107
533 Other Techniques
108
542 Model Calibration
110
543 Performance Measures
113
55 Model Uncertainty
114
Rivers
123
611 Forecasting Requirement
124
612 Data Availability
126
613 Type of Model
128
62 Rainfall Runoff Models
132
622 ProcessBased Models
135
623 Conceptual Models
137
624 DataBased Methods
139
63 River Channel Models
141
632 Process Based Models
142
633 Conceptual Models
145
Selected Applications
175
812 Modelling Approach
177
813 Ungauged Inflows
178
82 Flash Flood Forecasting
181
83 Snow and Ice
185
832 River Ice Forecasting
188
84 Control Structures
190
842 River Control Structures
195
843 Tidal Barriers
198
85 Urban Drainage
199
86 Geotechnical Risks
202
861 Structural Risks
203
862 Earth Movements
205
Emergency Response
207
Preparedness
208
912 Risk Assessments
214
913 AllHazard Approaches
217
914 Validation and Testing of Plans
219
92 Resilience
220
922 Analysis Techniques
224
93 Role of Information Technology
226
932 Geographical Information Systems
227
933 Visualisation and Simulation
228
Response
231
1012 Timelines
234
102 Decision Support Systems
237
103 Dealing with Uncertainty
244
Review
249
112 Performance Improvements
253
1121 Detection
254
1122 Thresholds
255
1123 Dissemination
256
1124 Forecasting
257
1125 Preparedness
258
113 Prioritising Investment
260
1131 Cost Benefit Analysis
261
1132 Multi Criteria and Risk Based Analysis
265
Glossary
267
References
275
Index
299
Copyright

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About the author (2008)

The author K. Sene has wide practical experience in the implementation of operational flood warning and forecasting systems, together with research experience in hydrology, meteorology and information systems. He has also played a leading role in developing several best practice guidelines on flood forecasting techniques for use by engineers and policy makers.