Florida Fruits and how to Raise Them

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J. P. Morton, 1886 - Fruit-culture - 343 pages
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Page 201 - Pliny as growing there in the first century of the Christian era. In Palestine, here and there, are olive trees estimated to be two thousand years old, and some of these, although their trunks are hollow and like an empty shell, bear bountiful crops ; one, a few years ago, yielded two hundred and forty quarts of oil. It is a common saying in Italy, " If you want to leave a lasting inheritance to your children's children, plant an olive.
Page 314 - ... of the thick white inner skin; quarter all the oranges and take out the seeds. Chop, or cut them into small pieces; drain all the juice that will come away, without pressing them, over the sugar; heat this, stirring until the sugar is dissolved, adding a very little water, unless the oranges are very juicy. Boil and skim five or six minutes; put in the boiled shreds, and cook ten minutes; then the chopped fruit and grated peel, and boil twenty minutes longer. When cold, put into small jars, tied...
Page 122 - ... negative or conflicting results, which cannot profitably be reviewed here. Suffice it to say, no method of combating rust by special treatment of the soil, or other indirect action through the plant, has been proven effective. By forcing with fertilizers or high cultivation, no improvement is effected in the color of the fruit. This depends, not upon the condition of the tree, but rather upon the number of the mites, which is, in fact increased by an .abundant supply of new growth and a constant...
Page 111 - A microscopic examination of the fruit-rind reveals no forms of fungus, but shows the oil-cells to be more or less completely emptied of their contents, and the outer layers, the epithelial cells, clogged with brownish resin, or entirely broken up and divided by fissures, which permit evaporation of the fluids from the underlying cells. The rind of rusted fruit, therefore, shrinks and toughens, and loses by evaporation or oxidation the greater part of its essential oil.
Page 120 - So readily do they relinquish their hold when brought into contact with a moving body, that the point of a needle swept across the surface of an infested leaf will usually be found to have several mites adhering to it. The same agencies which assist in the spread of scale-insects undoubtedly serve to scatter the mites. Not only do they climb readily along the web of spiders, but they may frequently be seen upon the bodies of the spiders themselves, which do not seem to be at all disturbed by the...
Page 118 - ... one-quarter of the whole, were however more or less thinly populated. Deducting, therefore, 27 per cent, from the above, we have 50,020 mites, the approximate population of the upper surface. The under side of the leaf was less thickly infested, but the number of mites may be estimated as one-half that of the upper face, or 25,000. Thus the number of mites and their eggs, upon a single leaf, is found to reach even in mid-winter the enormous sum of 75,000. In early summer, when the breeding is...
Page 118 - ... long endure the direct light and heat of the sun, they also avoid dark shade. At midday they are more abundant upon the under side of exposed leaves, and although they at all times show a marked preference for light, they desert those | parts of leaf or fruit upon which it falls brightest. On a leaf partially exposed to the sun, the, mites congregate near one edge in the .morning, and in the afternoon cross to the opposite side of the same surface, following the shifting shade which, by reason...
Page 121 - ... the leaves and fruit of all these species of Citrus the effects of its attack are essentially the same, although the rust is most noticeable on the Sweet and Bitter Orange. Effect of Attacks upon the Foliage. — Like certain internal animal parasites which feed only upon the fat of their hosts, and do not touch its vital organs, the Mite does not destroy the vital functions of the leaf. The chlorophyl is untouched, and the plant is robbed of a portion only of its essential oil. The leaves never...
Page 115 - The length of the adult mite is ().lamm (Т(гътг inch). The young do not differ essentially in structure from the adult mites, but are thick and short, almost cordiform, and the legs are very short. The eggs, which are deposited singly or in little clusters upon the surface of the leaves, are spherical, transparent, with a yellow tinge. Their diameter is more than half that of the mite at its widest part, and they probably increase in size by the absorption of moisture after they are laid, otherwise...
Page 124 - Rust-mite the difficulty in killing the eggs compels us to adopt one of two alternatives. We must either use powerful insecticides, in solutions even stronger than are required for scale-insects, or else make several applications, at short intervals, of washes competent to kill the mites only. In this way the trees may be freed of mites, by killing the young as they hatch, and not allowing any to reach the adult stage and produce a fresh crop of eggs. The following...

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