Fluid Mechanics for Industrial Safety and Environmental Protection
Applications of the science of fluid mechanics to the new and expanding fields of industrial safety and environmental protection are discussed in this volume. The material is organized in accordance with the chain-of-events in real accidents, starting with the loss of containment of hazardous fluids, going on to the spreading and mixing processes in water or air, and ending with the damage loads caused by explosions, fires or toxic content.
To develop solutions relevant to the wide range of problems considered, it is necessary to draw on material from various branches of fluid mechanics, i.e. from the engineering fields (aero- and gas- and hydrodynamics, hydraulics, heat transfer and two-phase flows) as well as from geophysics (environmental flows, boundary-layer meteorology). The relevant solutions are developed from the fundamental equations, but are kept simple for transparency and understanding. To achieve this, the simplifications offered by scaling, similarity and entrainment concepts are used extensively. Many of the solutions are novel but have been confirmed by laboratory experiments.
The material in the book has been used as a teaching text on Master's level, but the content will be useful also for practising engineers and scientists engaged in safety and environmental impact. The problems considered have been encountered in consultancy work for industry and government agencies. The coherent presentation and the fundamental basis for analytical developments, makes the material accessible also to readers not acquainted with the field.
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CHAPTER 3 STEADY AND QUASISTEADY OUTFLOW DUE TO GRAVITY
CHAPTER 4 UNSTEADY OUTFLOW DRIVEN BY GRAVITY
CHAPTER 5 OUTFLOW FROM PRESSURIZED CONTAINERS AND PIPELINES
CHAPTER 6 LIQUID SPILLS ON THE GROUND SPREADING AND EVAPORATION
CHAPTER 7 LIQUID SPILLS ON WATER THE PROBLEM OF OIL POLLUTION
CHAPTER 8 UNSTEADY DIFFUSION FROM A FINITE VOLUME
CHAPTER 12 GRAVITYDRIVEN FLOWS WITH LARGE CHANGES IN BUOYANCY
CHAPTER 13 HEAVYGAS DISPERSION IN THE LABORATORY AND IN THE ATMOSPHERE
CHAPTER 14 THE EFFECTS OF PLUMESURFACE INTERACTIONS
CHAPTER 15 FIRE COMBUSTION PROCESSES AND COMBUSTION WAVES
CHAPTER 16 EXPLOSIONS AND PRESSURE WAVES
CHAPTER 17 THEORETICAL SOLUTIONS FOR STRONG EXPLOSIONS
CHAPTER 18 DAMAGE CRITERIA AND DAMAGE ASSESSMENT