Flux Pinning in Superconductors

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 4, 2007 - Science - 503 pages
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Superconductivity is now a considerable focus of attention as one of the te- nologies which can prevent environmental destruction by allowing energy to be used with high e?ciency. The possibility of practical applications of sup- conductivitydependsonthemaximumcurrentdensitywhichsuperconductors can carry, the value of losses which superconductors consume, the maximum magnetic ?eld strength in which superconductors can be used, etc. These f- tors are directly related to the ?ux pinning of quantized magnetic ?ux lines in superconductors. This book extensively describes related subjects, from the fundamental physics of ?ux pinning to electromagnetic phenomena caused by ?ux pinning events, which will be useful for anyone who wants to understand applied superconductivity. The Japanese edition was published for this purpose in 1994. Since then, there has been signi?cant progress in the research and development of hi- temperature superconductors. In particular, the new superconductor MgB 2 was discovered in 2001, followed by steady improvements in the superc- ducting properties necessary for applications. On the other hand, there are no essential di?erences in the ?ux pinning phenomena between these new superconductors and metallic superconductors. Hence, the framework of the previous Japanese edition was kept unchanged, while new description was added on these new superconductors in the English edition. In the following the content of each chapter is brie?y introduced.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
12 Kinds of Superconductors
3
13 London Theory
6
14 GinzburgLandau Theory
9
15 Magnetic Properties
16
152 Vicinity of Lower Critical Field
17
153 Vicinity of Upper Critical Field
24
16 Surface Superconductivity
30
References
264
Flux Pinning Characteristics
266
72 Elastic Moduli of Flux Line Lattice
271
73 Summation Problem
275
732 Dynamic Theory
283
733 LarkinOvchinnikov Theory
286
734 Coherent Potential Approximation Theory
292
74 Comparison with Experiments
297

17 Josephson Effect
32
18 Critical Current Density
34
19 Flux Pinning Effect
38
References
40
Fundamental Electromagnetic Phenomena in Superconductors
41
22 Flux Flow
45
23 Mechanism of Hysteresis Loss
51
24 Characteristic of the Critical State Model and its Applicable Range
54
25 Irreversible Phenomena
55
26 Effect of Diamagnetism
66
27 AC Losses
76
References
82
Various Electromagnetic Phenomena
85
312 Loss in Superconducting Wire of Ellipsoidal Cross Section and Thin Strip due to AC Current
89
313 Transverse Magnetic Field
90
314 Rotating Magnetic Field
92
32 Dynamic Phenomena
95
33 Superposition of AC Magnetic Field
97
332 Reversible Magnetization
100
333 Abnormal Transverse Magnetic Field Effect
102
34 Flux Jump
103
35 Surface Irreversibility
108
36 DC Susceptibility
119
37 Reversible Flux Motion
125
38 Flux Creep
138
References
152
Longitudinal Magnetic Field Effect
154
42 FluxCutting Model
161
43 Stability of the ForceFree State
168
44 Motion of Flux Lines
175
45 Critical Current Density
186
46 Generalized Critical State Model
191
47 Resistive State
194
References
207
Measurement Methods for Critical Current Density
209
52 DC Magnetization Method
212
53 Campbells Method
213
54 Other AC Inductive Methods
221
542 AC Susceptibility Measurement
225
References
231
Flux Pinning Mechanisms
233
62 Elementary Pinning Force
234
63 Condensation Energy Interaction
237
632 Grain Boundary
245
64 Elastic Interaction
253
65 Magnetic Interaction
258
66 Kinetic Energy Interaction
259
67 Improvement of Pinning Characteristics
261
741 Qualitative Comparison
298
742 Quantitative Comparison
306
743 Problems in Summation Theories
307
75 Saturation Phenomenon
310
752 The Kramer Model
313
753 Model of Evetts et al
316
755 Avalanching Flow Model
320
76 Peak Effect and Related Phenomena
322
77 Pinning Potential Energy
331
References
337
HighTemperature Superconductors
341
82 Phase Diagram of Flux Lines
345
822 Vortex GlassLiquid Transition
346
823 OrderDisorder Transition
352
824 Phase Diagram of Flux Lines in Each Superconductor
357
825 Size Effect
359
826 Other Theoretical Predictions
360
83 Weak Links of Grain Boundaries
361
84 Electromagnetic Properties
365
842 Differences in the Size Effect due to the Dimensionality
367
843 Flux Creep
372
844 EJ Curve
374
845 Josephson Plasma
378
85 Irreversibility Field
380
852 Effect of Distribution of Pinning Strength
381
853 Comparison with Flux CreepFlow Model
383
854 Relation with GL Transition
391
86 Flux Pinning Properties
394
862 Bi2223
402
863 Bi2212
406
References
409
MgB2
413
92 Flux Pinning Properties
415
922 Thin Films
428
93 Possibility of Improvements in the Future
430
References
433
Appendix
435
A2 Magnetic Properties of a Small Superconductor
437
A3 Minimization of Energy Dissipation
439
A4 Partition of Pinning Energy
440
A5 Comments on the Nonlocal Theory of the Elasticity of the Flux Line Lattice
441
A6 Avalanching Flux Flow Model
448
A7 Josephson Penetration Depth
452
References
461
Answers to Exercises
462
Index
499
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