Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice

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Shau-Tarng Lee
CRC Press, Jul 19, 2000 - Technology & Engineering - 368 pages
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Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice combines the science of foam with the engineering of extrusion processes in one comprehensive volume, joining scientific principles and engineering practice. Starting with the fundamentals and then moving to phase separation, the text lays the scientific foundation in such a manner that the microscopic transition from a nucleus to a void (nucleation) and macroscopic movement from a void to an object (formation) are plausibly addressed. The last section of the book presents interesting foam extrusion developments, demonstrating how scientific findings can be applied to the engineering field, from principles to batch experimentation and continuous foaming. Each chapter concludes with a section of references for further study, and most include a nomenclature section and/or summary section as well. Drawing from the experience of the editor and the authors, Foam Extrusion: Principles and Practice captures the interesting evolution of foam extrusion, and offers a solid foundation for future developments. It is an informative guide for anyone involved with this field.
 

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pp.81

Contents

Introduction 11 THERMOPLASTIC FOAM
1
12 FOAM EXTRUSION
6
13 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
10
14 OUTLINE OF THE BOOK
12
15 REFERENCES
13
Statistical Thermodynamics of Gas Solubility in Polymers 21 INTRODUCTION
15
22 THERMODYNAMICS
16
23 STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS
17
Process Design for Thermoplastic Foam Extrusion 71 INTRODUCTION
165
72 HIGHDENSITY STRUCTURAL FOAM PROCESS
166
73 LOWDENSITY FOAM PROCESS
171
74 DIE DESIGN PROCEDURES FOR FOAM EXTRUSION
176
75 REFERENCES
187
Foam Extrusion Machinery Features 81 PREFACE REGARDING EXTRUDERS FOR FOAMING
189
82 BASIC PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDERS
190
83 BASIC UNIT OPERATIONS IN FOAM PROCESSES
199

24 METHODOLOGY
22
26 OUTLOOK
31
28 REFERENCES
32
Rheology of Thermoplastic Foam Extrusion Process 31 INTRODUCTION THE IMPORTANCE OF RHEOLOGY IN FOAMING PROCESSES
35
32 SHEAR RHEOLOGY OF BLOWING AGENTCHARGED POLYMERIC SYSTEMS
36
33 EXTENSIONAL RHEOLOGY FOR EXTRUSION FOAMING OF POLYMERS
65
34 CONCLUSION
76
35 REFERENCES
77
Foam Nucleation in GasDispersed Polymeric Systems 41 INTRODUCTION
81
42 EQUILIBRIUM CONSIDERATIONS
83
43 CONVENTIONAL NUCLEATION THEORIES
87
44 CAVITATION
102
45 FOAM EXTRUSION NUCLEATION
108
46 SUMMARY
116
47 NOMENCLATURE
119
48 REFERENCES
121
Foam Growth in Polymers 51 INTRODUCTION
125
52 IMPORTANCE OF THIS STUDY
126
54 FOAM GROWTH EXPERIMENT
134
55 FOAM GROWTH MODELING
135
56 FOAM GROWTH EQUATIONS
136
57 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
137
58 COMPARISON OF THEORY WITH EXPERIMENT
141
59 CONCLUSIONS
142
511 REFERENCES
143
Polymeric Foaming Simulation Batch and Continuous
145
62 BATCH FOAMING
146
63 CONTINUOUS FOAMING
158
64 CONCLUSIONS
162
65 NOMENCLATURE
163
66 REFERENCES
164
84 EXTRUDER TYPES SUPPORT DEVICES AND WHERE SUBPROCESSES ARE PLACED
208
85 GENERAL EXTRUDER OBSERVATIONS
212
86 REFERENCES
213
Mixing Design for Foam Extrusion Analysis and Practices 91 INTRODUCTION
215
92 THERMOPLASTIC FOAM EXTRUSION PROCESSES
216
93 MIXINGTHEORIES AND EXPERIMENTS
219
94 MIXING PRACTICES IN SINGLE AND TWINSCREW EXTRUDERS
235
95 PROCESS CHALLENGES
242
96 SUMMARY
246
Foaming Agents for Foam Extrusion 101 INTRODUCTION
251
104 REFERENCES
262
Continuous Production of HighDensity and LowDensity Microcellular Plastics in Extrusion 111 INTRODUCTION
263
112 PREVIOUS STUDIES ON BATCH AND SEMICONTINUOUS MICROCELLULAR PROCESSING
265
113 BACKGROUND ON MICROCELLULAR PLASTICS PROCESSING
266
114 FORMATION OF A SINGLEPHASE POLYMERGAS SOLUTION
268
115 MICROCELLULAR NUCLEATION CONTROL
274
116 SUPPRESSION OF CELL COALESCENCE
283
117 PROMOTION OF LARGE VOLUME EXPANSION
285
118 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
287
119 EXPERIMENTS AND DISCUSSION
288
1110 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
301
1111 NOMENCLATURE
302
1112 REFERENCES
303
Foam Extrusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate PET 121 INTRODUCTION
307
122 REVIEW OF PET CHEMISTRY AND PROCESSING CHARACTERISTICS
309
123 FOAMING WITH PHYSICAL BLOWING AGENTS
311
124 FOAMING WITH CHEMICAL BLOWING AGENTS
328
125 CONCLUDING REMARKS
335
126 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
336
Index
339
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