Food Microbiology

Front Cover
New Age International, 1996 - Food - 398 pages
3 Reviews
Food Microbiology Is The First Entirely New, Comprehensive Student Text To Be Published On This Subject For More Than 10 Years. It Covers The Whole Field Of Modern Food Microbiology, Including Recent Developments In The Procedures Used To Assay And Control Microbiological Quality In Food.The Book Covers The Three Main Themes Of The Interaction Of Micro Organisms With Food-Spoilage, Food Borne Illness And Food Fermentation And Gives Balanced Attention To Both The Positive And Negative Aspect Which Result. It Also Discusses The Factors Affecting The Presence Of Microorganisms In Foods, As Well As Their Capacity To Survive And Grow. Suggestions For Further Reading, Of Either The Most Recent Or The Best Material Available, Are Included In A Separate Section.This Book Presents A Thorough And Accessible Account Of Modem Food Microbiology And Will Make And Ideal Course Book. Food Microbiology Is A Must For Undergraduates, Lecturers And Researchers Involved In The Biological Sciences, Biotechnology, And Food Science And Technology.
 

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Contents

The Scope of Food Microbiology 11 Microorganisms and Food
1
111 Food SpoilagePreservation
2
112 Food Safety
3
12 Microbiological Quality Assurance
4
Microorganisms and Food Materials 21 Diversity of Habitat
5
221 Airborne Bacteria
6
222 Airborne Fungi
8
23 Microorganisms of Soil
10
791 Introduction 792 The Organism and its Characteristics
191
794 Isolation and Identification 795 Association with Foods 710 Salmonella 7101 Introduction
192
7102 The Organism and its Characteristics
194
7103 Pathogenesis and Clinical Features
195
71032 Systemic Disease
196
7104 Isolation and Identification
197
7105 Association with Foods
200
7111 Introduction 7112 The Organism and its Characteristics
203

24 Microorganisms of Water
11
25 Microorganisms of Plants
14
261 The Skin
16
27 Conclusions
17
Factors Affecting the Growth and Survival of Microorganisms in Foods 31 Microbial Growth
18
32 Intrinsic Factors Substrate Limitations 321 Nutrient Content
21
322 pH and Buffering Capacity
22
323 Redox Potential h
25
324 Antimicrobial Barriers and Constituents
28
325 Water Activity
32
33 Extrinsic Factors Environmental Limitations 331 Relative Humidity
39
332 Temperature
42
333 Gaseous Atmosphere
44
34 Predictive Food Microbiology
45
The Microbiology of Food Preservation
55
411 Pasteurization and Appertization
56
D and z Values
57
413 Heat Sensitivity of Microorganisms
60
414 Describing a Heat Process
64
415 Spoilage of Canned Foods
68
42 Irradiation
71
422 UV Radiation
73
423 Ionizing Radiation
75
43 Highpressure Processing Pascalization
79
44 Lowtemperature StorageChilling and Freezing
81
441 Chill Storage
82
442 Freezing
84
45 Chemical Preservatives
86
451 Organic Acids and Esters
87
452 Nitrite
90
453 Sulfur Dioxide
92
46 Modification of Atmosphere
94
47 Control of Water Activity
97
48 Compartmentalization
100
Microbiology of Primary Food Commodities 51 What is Spoilage?
103
521 Composition
104
522 Microflora of Raw Milk
106
523 Heat Treatment of Milk
109
524 Milk Products
112
531 Structure and Composition
113
532 The Microbiology of Primary Processing
115
533 Spoilage of Fresh Meat
117
54 Fish
119
541 Structure and Composition
120
542 The Microbiology of Primary Processing
121
544 Spoilage of Fresh Fish
122
55 Plant Products
125
551 Cereals
126
553 Pulses Nuts and Oilseeds
128
554 Fruits and Fruit Products
130
555 Vegetables and Vegetable Products
132
Food Microbiology and Public Health 61 Food Hazards
136
62 Significance of Foodborne Disease
138
63 Incidence of Foodborne Illness
141
64 Risk Factors Associated with Foodborne Illness
144
In Function and Microflora
147
66 The Pathogenesis of Diarrhoeal Disease
152
Bacterial Agents of Foodborne Illness 71 Aeromonas Hydrophila 711 Introduction
156
713 Pathogenesis and Clinical Features
157
715 Association with Foods 72 Brucella 721 Introduction 722 The Organism and its Characteristics
158
724 Isolation and Identification 725 Association with Foods
159
731 Introduction 732 The Organism and its Characteristics
160
734 Isolation and Identification
161
735 Association with Foods
162
741 Introduction 742 The Organism and its Characteristics
164
743 Pathogenesis and Clinical Features
165
744 Isolation and Identification
166
745 Association with Foods
167
751 Introduction
168
752 The Organism and its Characteristics
169
753 Pathogenesis and Clinical Features
172
754 Isolation and Identification
174
755 Association with Foods
175
761 Introduction
177
763 Pathogenesis and Clinical Features
178
764 Isolation and Identification
179
765 Association with Foods
180
771 Introduction
181
773 Pathogenesis and Clinical Features
182
7732 Enteroinvasive E coli EIEC
183
7734 Enterohaemarrhagic E coli EHEC
184
774 Isolation and Identification
185
78 Listeria Monocytogenes 781 Introduction
186
782 The Organism and its Characteristics
187
783 Pathogenesis and Clinical Features
188
784 Isolation and Identification
189
785 Association with Foods
190
7114 Isolation and Identification 7115 Association with Foods
204
7121 Introduction
205
7123 Pathogenesis and Clinical Features
207
7124 Isolation and Identification
208
7125 Association with Foods
209
713 VIBRIO
210
7132 The Organisms and their Characteristics
211
7133 Pathogenesis and Clinical Features
212
7134 Isolation and Identification
213
7135 Association with Foods
214
7142 The Organism and its Characteristics
215
7143 Pathogenesis and Clinical Feature
216
7144 Isolation and Identification
217
7145 Association with Foods
218
716 CONCLUSION
219
Nonbacterial Agents of Foodborne Illness
220
812 Roundworms
222
82 PROTOZOA
224
822 Entamoeba histolytica
225
83 TOXIGENIC ALGAE
226
832 Cyanobacterial Toxins
227
833 Toxic Diatoms
228
841 Mycotoxins and Mycophagy
229
8421 The Aflatoxins In 1959 a very singular event occurred which initiated the international interest which now exists in mycotoxins This was the de...
230
8422 The Ochratoxins Ochratoxin A Figure 811 which is a potent nephrotoxin was first isolated from Aspergillus ochraceus in South Africa but it ha...
234
8423 Other Aspergillus Toxins Sterigmatocystin Figure 812 a precursor in the biosynthesis of aflatoxins is produced by a relatively large number of ...
235
843 Mycotoxins oSPenicillium
236
844 Mycotoxins otFusarium
237
8442 DON and Other Trichothecenes In Japan an illness known as redmould disease involving nausea vomiting and diarrhoea has been associated wi...
239
8443 Zearalenone Zearalenone Figure 816 is an oestrogenic mycotoxin which was first shown to cause vulvovaginitis in pigs fed on mouldy maize P...
240
845 Mycotoxins of Other Fungi
241
85 FOODBORNE VIRUSES
244
851 Polio
246
853 Gastroenteritis Viruses
247
855 Control
249
86 SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES
250
Fermented and Microbial Foods 91 INTRODUCTION
252
93 LACTIC ACID BACTERIA
255
941 Antimicrobial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria
258
942 Healthpromoting Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria
260
943 The Malolactic Fermentation
262
95 FERMENTED MILKS 951 Yoghurt
263
952 Other Fermented Milks
266
96 CHEESE
269
97 FERMENTED VEGETABLES 971 Sauerkraut and Kimchi
274
972 Olives
277
973 Cucumbers
278
98 FERMENTED MEATS
280
99 FERMENTED FISH
282
910 BEER
284
911 VINEGAR
291
912 MOULD FERMENTATIONS
296
9122 Soy Sauce and Rice Wine
299
9123 Mycoprotein
301
913 CONCLUSION
302
Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods 101 INDICATOR ORGANISMS
303
102 DIRECT EXAMINATION
305
103 CULTURAL TECHNIQUES
306
104 ENUMERATION METHODS 1041 Plate Counts
308
1042 Most Probable Number Counts
310
105 ALTERNATIVE METHODS
311
1051 Dyereduction Tests
313
1053 ATP Determination
316
1061 Immunological Methods
317
1062 DNARNA Methodology
319
107 LABORATORY ACCREDITATION
321
Controlling the Microbiological Quality of Foods
323
112 SAMPLING SCHEMES
325
1122 Threeclass Attributes Plans
329
1123 Choosing a Plan Stringency
331
1124 Variable Acceptance Sampling
333
113 QUALITY CONTROL USING MICROBIOLOGICAL CRITERIA
336
114 CONTROL AT SOURCE
337
1142 Facilities and Operations
338
1143 Equipment
342
1144 Cleaning and Disinfection
343
115 CODES OF GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE
349
1161 Hazard Analysis
350
1162 Identification of Critical Control Points CCPs
351
1163 Establishment of CCP Criteria
352
1164 Monitoring Procedures for CCPs
353
1167 Verification
354
BS 5750 AND ISO 9000 SERIES
355
Further Reading
359
Subject Index
365
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