Food Color and Appearance
This book describes the philosophy of total appearance of food, the factors comprising it, and its application to the food industry. Beginning with an overview of food color and appearance attributes, the book describes the physics and chemistry of vision and color, sensory appearance and profile analysis, color measurement, color specification of food, and specification of other appearance properties. This new edition has been thoroughly updated, and includes new material on information transfer theory. The broad examination by the author attempts to bring into perspective the importance of food appearance to all sectors of the industry.
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two typeso of water solubel betalaines -strongly purpled betacyanins and the yellow betaxanthins or vulgaxanthins. betanin is the major pigment, composing 95 per cent of the total betacyanin fontent of the beet.per oxidase causes discolouriation fo beet piemnts with endogenous polypheoloxidase and peroxidase being responsible for the balce ring defect of the canned beetroot. ascorbic acid prevent poroxidase catalysed decoloration of beet homogenates occuring during the preparation of red beet powders. the pigement is ionic colour intensity depends upon pH, btwn 3 to 7 and most stable between 4 and 5, removal of oxygen increases stability. at slightly lower and higher pGs, it is rather bluwe, but above 10 it becomes yellow. the degradation of pigment involves water, so increased pigemtn stability can be obtained in products that are of low water activity. light, metal ions, gamma and ultraviolet radiation also cause degradation of the pigments. a betanin concentration of 33 ppm gives marshmallow a strawberry colour, but 80 ppm is needed for a cherry colour. similarl, 16 ppm in a fondant gives a strawberry colour, 32 ppm required for raspberry.
FOOD COLOR AND APPERANCE- II EDITION, JOHN B. HUTCHINGS-AN ASPEN PUBLICATION, 1999, 544-545