Food Ingestion and Energy Transformations: With Special Reference to the Stimulating Effect of Nutrients, Issue 261

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Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1918 - Metabolism - 355 pages

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Page 350 - No clearly defined difference between the animal and vegetable proteins was found in their influence upon the metabolism. 8. Experiments with mixed diets, especially those with excessive amounts of food, showed that by the ingestion of a large meal it was possible to stimulate metabolism to 40 per cent above the basal value for a number of hours, and to 20 per cent for at least 8 hours; indeed, there was every reason to believe that the stimulus to metabolism would have been found to continue considerably...
Page 5 - Food ingestion and energy transformations with special reference to the stimulating effect of nutrients.
Page 139 - ... and after the ingestion of water, coffee, beef tea, and single food materials in which carbohydrate, fat, or protein predominated. A number of experiments were also made with combinations of food materials. The conclusions drawn from the various groups of experiments may be summed up as follows: 1. The work of mastication, such as would be involved in chewing gum or a rubber stopper continuously, may temporarily require an increment in heatproduction of approximately 17 per cent. 2. Ingestion...
Page 352 - Ingestion of pure carbohydrates or a predominatingly carbohydrate menl to be about 6 per cent of the fuel value of the food Ingested, of fat approximately 2 per cent, of a protein-rich diet about 12 per cent, and of a mixed diet about 6 per cent The authors assert, however, that " the excess heat produced from the Ingestion of protein or carbohydrates like sugars may not properly be considered as purely a waste process, but that It is far more logical to consider it as a general stimulation of all...
Page 22 - Wiedercrnährung nach längerem Hungern wächst der Stoffwechsel in Folge der Verdauungsarbeit. Nachdem diese beendet, etwa 12 Stunden nach der letzten Mahlzeit, beobachtet man niedrigere 0-Zahlen als im Hunger.
Page 350 - ... Approximately 325 grams of coffee at a temperature of about 60° C. will produce an increment in the metabolism of 8 to 9 per cent. 5. With carbohydrates the basal metabolism may be increased to an average maximum of approximately 25 per cent by the ingestion of 100 grams of any one of several sugars, although levulose and sucrose appear to exert a somewhat more powerful influence than the other sugars. This increment occurs inside of 2 hours and the metabolism has a tendency to return to the...
Page 139 - Furthermore, when we find that this prolonged mastication demands an excess heat production of approximately 17 per cent above the basal value it is easily seen that any advantage gained from a possible increase in the digestibility of the food is more than compensated by the increase in the heat production. The conception of an increase in the digestibility and in the utilization of the energy of foodstuffs as a result of prolonged mastication thus finds no support in fact.
Page 47 - Suleimanieh together with the northern half of the province of Mosul. It is customary to regard the Tigris-Euphrates lowlands as closely similar in physiography to Egypt, and, therefore, it has come to be thought that the population situation in both countries must be again somewhat similar. This is far from being the case. In the first place, there is little correspondence in physical features or in river regime ; and whereas the cultivable parts of the Nile valley are sharply limited to the floor...
Page 153 - J hour i to 1 hour 1 to 2 hours 2 to 4 hours 4 to 6 hours 6 to 8 hours 8 to...
Page 343 - Concerning these results, the authors say “. . . in drawing conclusions from the results given in these 2 tables, it should be remembered that the figures given are low, rather than maximum values, since in the majority of instances the basal value was not reached before the conclusion of the experiment . . .

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