For "children who Vary from the Normal Type": Special Education in Boston, 1838-1930
In his perceptive study of the education of disabled children during the 19th and early 20th centuries, Robert Osgood focuses upon the Boston school system as both typical and a national leader among urban centers at that time. Osgood points out that a host of significant figures worked in education in the region, including Horace Mann, George Emerson, and John Philbrick, and also Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, Samuel Gridley Howe, Edouard Seguin, Hervey Wilbur, and Walter Fernald, each of the latter group noted for first founding and/or directing institutions for individuals with disabilities.
For "Children Who Vary from the Normal Type" describes the growth of Boston and its educational system during this period, then examines closely the emergence of individual programs that catered to students formally identified as having special needs: intermediate schools and ungraded classes; three separate programs for students with children; special classes for mentally retarded children; and other programs established between 1908 and 1913. Osgood describes these programs and their relations with each other, and also the rationales offered for their establishment and support. This detailed examination graphically depicts how patterns of integration and segregation in special education shifted over time in Boston, and provides a foundation for continuing the present-day discussion of the politics and realities of inclusion.
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32nd ARSBPS 33td ARSBPS 34th ARSBPS 45th ARSBPS administrators Alexander Graham Bell American Annual Report appendix ARSCB ASBPS Assistant Superintendent Augustine attendance blind Boston Public Schools Boston School Committee centers chil child city's common school curriculum day school deaf children deaf education Deaf-Mutes dents educa Edwin Seaver efforts enrollment established Fitts Gallaudet University graded classes grammar schools HMSD Horace Mann School immigrant individuals institutions instruction intellectual intelligence tests intermediate schools large numbers Massachusetts ment mental disabilities mental retardation Mentally Defective movement needs number of students Parental School Parker population Primary School Board Primary School Committee problems Proceedings public school system pupils Rafter reform regarding Report of Assistant RPHMSD Samuel Gridley School Committee School Document school officials segregation social special class special class students special class teachers special education special education programs speech improvement students with disabilities teaching tion ungraded classes University Press Visible Speech