For Gods, Ghosts and Ancestors: The Chinese Tradition of Paper Offerings
Offerings of various kinds – food, incense, paper money and figures – have been central to Chinese culture for millennia, and as a public, visual display of spiritual belief, they are still evident today in China and in Chinatowns around the world. Using Hong Kong as a case study, Janet Scott looks at paper offerings from every conceivable angle – how they are made, sold, and used. Her comprehensive investigation touches on virtually every aspect of Chinese popular religion as it explores the many forms of these intricate objects, their manufacture, their significance, and their importance in rituals to honor gods, care for ancestors, and contend with ghosts. Throughout For Gods, Ghosts and Ancestors, paper offerings are presented as a vibrant and living tradition expressing worshippers' respect and gratitude for the gods, as well as love and concern for departed family members. Ranging from fake paper money to paper furniture, servant dolls, cigarettes, and toiletries – all multihued and artfully constructed – paper offerings are intended to provide for the needs of those in the spirit world. Readers are introduced to the variety of paper offerings and their uses in worship, in assisting worshippers with personal difficulties, and in rituals directed to gods, ghosts, and ancestors. We learn of the manufacture and sale of paper goods, life in paper shops, the training of those who make paper offerings, and the symbolic and artistic dimensions of the objects. Finally, the book considers the survival of this traditional craft, the importance of flexibility and innovation, and the role of compassion and filial piety in the use of paper offerings.
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100 Problems ancestors assemblages auspicious elements bamboo believe ceremonies Chaozhou Charm China Chinese colored paper crafted craftsmen customers Dard Hunter dead deceased decorated deities Dongguan Dragon elderly everyday offerings example Festival Flower Cannons Fu Jian funeral offerings gods Gold and Silver Golden Flowers green Guan Yin Hell Money Hong Kong Hong Kong Island Honorable People Papers Hungry Ghosts images incense individual Kong's Kowloon Lee Wing Sum Longevity Gold luck Lucky Basin Lunar models Money to Live non-pitched packages painted pair paper clothing paper items paper masters paper offerings Pinwheels pitched items popular practice printed purchased Qing Ming religious replicas respondents retail paper shops retail shops ritual Royal Asiatic Society sell shapes sheet Silver Paper Solving of 100 spirit money Spirit Red temple Three Star Gods Tian Hou trade traditional Treasure variety Viona Lee Wing White Money Wong Wong Tai Sin workshop worship