Forgotten Reformer: Robert McClaughry and Criminal Justice Reform in Nineteenth-Century America

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University Press of America, Dec 22, 2010 - Law - 402 pages
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Forgotten Reformer traces criminal justice practice and reform developments in late nineteenth-century America through the life and career of Robert McClaughry, a leading reformer. As a warden of one of America's toughest prisons, as a chief of police of Chicago, as a superintendent of two different reformatories, and as one of the first wardens of the federal prison system, McClaughry developed and led a reform movement that resonates today. As a founding member of the reformatory movement that sought to 'save' young first offenders, McClaughry advocated new sentencing structures, probation, parole, and rehabilitative regimes within new institutions for young first offenders called reformatories. McClaughry then successfully got these reformatory ideals placed into adult prisons. In addition, McClaughry became American's main advocate for a criminal identification method called the Bertillon system. He set up the first identification bureaus at the Illinois State Penitentiary, the Chicago police department, and the federal prison at Leavenworth, Kansas and these became models for others across the country. Finally, as a founding member of the National Association of Chiefs of Police (today the International Association of Chiefs of Police) and the National Prison Assocation (today American Corrections Association), McClaughry sought to professionalize police and prison administrators.
 

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Contents

Chapter 01 Matters of Place
3
Chapter 02 Matters of Faith
9
Chapter 03 Matters of the Mind
16
Chapter 04 Matters of War
19
Chapter 05 Matters of Business
30
CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN POSTCIVIL WAR ILLINOIS
33
Chapter 06 Crime
35
Chapter 07 Punishment at Alton
40
Chapter 22 Moving on
183
STATE POLITICS AND PENOLOGY MCCLAUGHRY AT PONTIAC
187
Chapter 23 Youth Crime in Illinois
189
Chapter 24 John Peter Altgeld
199
Chapter 25 Pontiac Reformatory
203
Chapter 26 State Politics and Prisons
211
photospread 01
221
GROWING A PRISON PROFESSION
227

Chapter 08 Early Joliet
43
Chapter 09 McClaughry at Joliet
51
Chapter 10 The Prisoners
57
Chapter 11 Prison Workers
71
Chapter 12 McClaughry and Reform
85
Chapter 13 The Bertillon System
90
Chapter 14 Fond Farewells
95
MCCLAUGHRY AND THE REFORMATORY MOVEMENT
99
Chapter 15 Youth Crime in Pennsylvania
101
Chapter 16 The Reformatory
111
Chapter 17 McClaughry at Huntingdon
115
POLICING CHICAGO
125
Chapter 18 Chicago in the 1890s
127
Chapter 19 Policing the City
136
Chapter 20 McClaughry and the Police
141
Chapter 21 Crusades against Crime and Disorder
165
Chapter 27 Rise of Professionalism in Penology
229
Chapter 28 Academics v Practitioners
237
Chapter 29 Buckets and Brooms
244
Chapter 30 Ascendancy of the Wardens
258
MCCLAUGHRY AT LEAVENWORTH
265
Chapter 31 Rise of Federal Corrections
267
photospread 02
277
Chapter 32 McClaughry Comes to Leavenworth
283
Chapter 33 Crises at Leavenworth
297
Chapter 34 Prison Workers at Leavenworth
316
Chapter 35 To All Purposes Futile
322
Forlorn Hope
329
Bibliography
341
Index
355
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About the author (2010)

Frank Morn is a professor of criminal justice sciences at Illinois State University. He is the author of 'The Eye That Never Sleeps': A History of the Pinkerton National Detective Agency and Academic Politics and the History of Criminal Justice Education.