This book introduces the techniques of formal logic in a way suitable for all students of philosophy. Chapter 1: Logical Reasoning introduces the ideas behind formal logic. Chapter 2: Propositional logic and Chapter 3: Entailment and Equivalence develop the language of propositional logic and its meaning. Chapter 4: Proof Trees shows how to use the simple tree method to test whether an argument is valid. Chapter 5: First Order Logic introduces first-order logic, including the theory of quantification, and Chapter 6: Identity adds identity to the first-order language. Finally, Chapter 7: Proof Trees for First Order Logic shows how to use the tree method for testing arguments in first order logic.
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