Fossilization in Adult Second Language Acquisition
This text is a systematic attempt to address the issue of fossilization in relation to a fundamental question in second language acquisition research, which is: why are learners, adults in particular, unable to develop the level of competence they have aspired to in spite of continuous and sustained exposure to the target language, adequate motivation to learn and sufficient opportunity to practice?
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Fossilization and Ultimate Attainment
A Conceptual Framework
An Outline of the Book
What is Fossilization?
Transfer of Thinking for Speaking
The Sorace 1993 study
A Microscopic Analysis Some Empirical Evidence
The longitudinal approach
The typicalerror approach
The advancedlearner approach
An Alternative Definition
Is fossilization a product or a process?
Behavioral Reflexes and Causal Variables
Quality of input
Learning inhibiting learning
Lack of understanding
Change in emotional state
Lack of acculturation
Will to maintain identity
Two Primary Determinants of Lack of Ability
A Macroscopic Analysis Critical Period Effects
CPH in FLA and SLA
The Modular Nature of CP
Critical Period Effects on Language Learning
A Macroscopic Analysis Native Language Transfer
Transferinspired Delay in L2 Learning
Transfer to Somewhere and Transfer to Nowhere
The correctivefeedback approach
The lengthofresidence approach
Two recent longitudinal studies
Is stabilization synonymous with fossilization?
Should a longitudinal study last five years or longer?
The Modular Nature of Fossilization
Linguistic Features Prone to Fossilization
The Multiple Effects Principle
Second Language Instruction and Fossilization
To What Extent Does Instruction Aid Acquisition?
Explicit or implicit instruction?
Is grammar instruction necessary?
The zone of capability
To What Extent Does Instruction Promote Fossilization?
Opportunity for use of language
Summary and Conclusion
Implications for Research and Practice
General Directions for Future Research
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