Fossils, Phylogeny, and Form: An Analytical Approach

Front Cover
Jonathan M. Adrain, Gregory D. Edgecombe, Bruce S. Lieberman
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 31, 2002 - Science - 402 pages

Phylogenetic analysis and morphometrics have been developed by biologists into rigorous analytic tools for testing hypotheses about the relationships between groups of species. This book applies these tools to paleontological data.

The fossil record is our one true chronicle of the history of life, preserving a set of macroevolutionary patterns; thus various hypotheses about evolutionary processes can be tested in the fossil record using phylogentic analysis and morphometrics.

The first book of its type, Fossils, Phylogeny, and Form will be useful in evolutionary biology, paleontology, systematics, evolutionary development, theoretical biology, biogeography, and zoology. It will also provide a practical, researcher-friendly gateway into computer-based phylogenetics and morphometrics.

 

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Contents

PALEOBIOLOGY AN EMPIRICAL HISTORICAL SCIENCE
1
PHYLOGENY AND FORM
3
REFERENCES
6
PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS FIVE STEPS TO ENLIGHTENMENT
7
THE TERMINOLOGY
9
THE METHOD
15
SUMMARY
26
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
27
OPTIMALITY
241
AREA DEFINITION
244
TAXONAREA CLADOGRAMS AREAGRAMS AND GENERAL AREAGRAMS
246
ANALYTICAL PROBLEMS AND ASSUMPTIONS
247
CURRENT COMPONENTBASED APPROACHES
253
SOURCES OF AMBIGUITY
275
NODE INTERPRETATION
277
CLADOGRAMS AND TREES REVISITED
279

MORPHOMETRY AND PHYLOGENY IN THE RESOLUTION OF PALEOBIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS UNLOCKING THE EVOLUTIONARY SIG...
29
PALEONTOLOGYS CONTRIBUTION TO UNDERSTANDING EVOLUTION
30
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
31
LOCALITY
33
STUDY SAMPLE
34
DISCUSSION
46
SUMMARY
52
REFERENCES
53
MORPHOLOGICAL DISPARITY A PRIMER
55
CLADISTIC CONCEPTS
59
PHENETIC CONCEPTS
60
PHENETIC INDICES OF DISPARITY
88
DISPARITY AND MAJOR BODY PLANS
96
OTHER FACTORS VARIOUSLY RELATED TO DISPARITY
97
THE CONTINUITY OF MORPHOSPACE OCCUPATION
100
PATTERNS OF DISPARITY THROUGH TIME
108
MORPHOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS
112
DISPARITY AND EXTANT BIODIVERSITY
123
CONCLUSIONS
124
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
127
HOMOLOGY CHARACTERS AND MORPHOMETRIC DATA
145
HOMOLOGY
147
HOMOLOGY AND CLASSES OF MORPHOMETRIC VARIABLES
174
CONCLUSIONS
193
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
194
LANDMARKS LOCALIZATION AND THE USE OF MORPHOMETRICS IN PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS
197
THE GEOMETRIC BASIS OF MORPHOMETRIC OBSERVATIONS
199
THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF MORPHOMETRIC OBSERVATIONS
201
MATERIALS AND METHODS
203
RESULTS
206
DISCUSSION
223
SUMMARY
228
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
230
REFERENCES
231
CLADISTIC BIOGEOGRAPHY COMPONENTBASED METHODS AND PALEONTOLOGICAL APPLICATION
235
GEOGRAPHIC CONGRUENCE
236
THE ROLE OF FOSSILS
238
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
280
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
281
REFERENCES
282
APPENDIX
287
STRATIGRAPHY PHYLOGENY AND SPECIES SAMPLING IN TIME AND SPACE
291
RECONSTRUCTING PHYLOGENY WITH AND WITHOUT TEMPORAL DATA
292
TIME AS DATA
295
UTILITY OF STRATOPHYLOGENIES
297
STRATOMETHODS AND SAMPLING
298
TRILOBITE SPECIES SAMPLING IN THE LAURENTIAN SUNWAPTAN
299
PHYLOGENY OF THE EUPTYCHASPIDINAE AND MACRONODINAE
305
PHYLOGENY VERSUS SAMPLING
311
CONCLUSIONS
313
REFERENCES
314
APPENDIX 1 CHARACTER LIST FOR ANALYSIS OF EUPTYCHASPIDINAE AND MACRONODINAE
320
ANALYZING SPECIATION RATES IN MACROEVOLUTIONARY STUDIES
323
THE RATES OF EVOLUTION MOST RELEVANT TO PALEONTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF MACROEVOLUTION
324
APPROACHES TO ANALYZING RATES OF SPECIATION
325
CONCLUSIONS
336
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
337
THE NATURE AND ORIGIN OF SUPRASPECIFIC TAXA REVISITEDWITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TRILOBITA
341
THE SLOSHING BUCKET
344
HOW DO THE PREDICTIONS OF THE SLOSHING BUCKET FARE?
357
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
368
NOTES
369
REFERENCES
372
THE ROLE AND DESIGN OF DATABASES IN PALEONTOLOGY
377
DATABASES TODAY
378
KINDS OF DATABASES
380
SECURITY ACCESS AND THE VALUE OF INFORMATION
382
THE ELECTRONIC RELATIONAL DATABASE
384
DATABASES IN PALEONTOLOGY
388
THE FUTURE OF DATABASES IN PALEONTOLOGY
390
CONCLUSIONS
392
REFERENCES
393
INDEX
397
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