Four Caliphates: The Formation and Development of the Islamic Tradition
This volume shows how Islamic conquests brought contact with Egyptian, Persian, and Chinese traditions and produced magnificent mosques, palaces, tombs, and courtyard houses.
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9th century Abbasid Abd al-Rahman al-Mansur's Aleppo Alhambra Almohads Almoravids Anatolia Arab arcades architecture Baghdad Berber brickwork building built Bukhara Buyid Byzantine Cairo caliph canopy caravanserai central centre Christian citadel cloisters colonnade colonnettes columns Cordova cornice court and iwan courtyard Cufic script Damascus decorative domed chambers earliest Egypt enclosure entrance facade Fatimids four four-iwan Friday mosque frontispiece Granada horseshoe hypostyle hall Imam imperial space Iran Iranian Iraq Isfahan Islam Jerusalem Kairouan khanaqah Koran later madrasa madrasa of Sultan maqsura Marinid Marrakesh Mecca Medina metres mihrab mihrab bay Minare madrasa minaret motifs Muhammad muqarnas vault Muslim nave Nizam al-Mulk octagonal originally overleaf palace Parthians pavilion piers prayer hall Prophet's mosque qibla qubba rebuilt rectangular Roman roof ruler Samanid Samarra sanctuary Sassanian Seljuk Seville Shi'ite sides Spain square squinches stylised floral Sunni supporting Syria temple tower trabeated tradition transept tribal Ukhaydir Umayyad mosque usually wall Yusuf