From Classical to Modern Chemistry: The Instrumental Revolution

Front Cover
Peter J. T. Morris, Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain)
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002 - Science - 347 pages
Most chemists today have either taken part in, or been affected by, the chemical revolution that has taken place over the course of the last century. Developments in instrumentation have changed not just what chemists do, but also how they think about chemistry. New and exciting areas of previously inaccessible research have been opened up as a direct result of this revolution. This is the first book to examine this instrumental revolution and goes on to assess the impact on chemical practice in areas ranging from organic chemistry and biochemistry to environmental analysis and process control, thus demonstrating how fundamental and extensive are the changes that have occurred. With contributions from internationally recognised specialists, this lavishly illustrated book provides a focal point for any historian of chemistry or chemist with an interest in this fascinating topic. This book is published in association with the Science Museum, London, UK and the Chemical Heritage Foundation, Philadelphia.
 

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Contents

The Adoption of Infrared Spectroscopy by Chemists
3
Beginnings
6
Wartime Developments
13
The Synthetic Rubber Program
15
Petroleum Refining
17
The Dissemination of Infrared Technology
18
Comparative Examples
20
Conclusion
23
Impact of Instrumentation on Chemistry
169
The Influence of the Second Chemical Revolution
171
Technology and the Advancement of Science
173
The Affect from the Second Chemical Revolution
174
Use of Instruments and Construction of Concepts
178
The Showcase and Approval by the Peers
181
The Location of Instruments in the Practice of Chemistry
183
Conclusion
185

Acknowledgements
26
Analytical Chemistry and the Big Scientific Instrumentation Revolution
29
Evidence of the Change in Analytical Chemistry
30
From Separation and Manufacture to Identification and Control
36
A Crisis of Identity
39
Ralph Mullers Science of Instrumentation
42
The Instrumentation Transformation in Analytical Chemistry and Scientific Revolutions
46
The Fourth Big Revolution
49
Notes and References
53
The Role of Physical Instrumentation in Structural Organic Chemistry in the Twentieth Century
57
Early Responses to the New Instrumental Technology
58
Classical Methods
59
Evolution of Chemical Instrumentation
61
Development of Xray Methods
62
Ultraviolet and Infrared Spectroscopy
65
Woodward Rules
68
Octant Rule
69
Mass Spectroscopy
70
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
73
Promotion of Physical Methods Through Publications
77
Conclusion
80
Notes and References
82
Instrument Development in Social Economic and Political Context
85
Then and Now
87
The Place of Chemistry
95
The Ultracentrifuge
96
Origins and Evolution of Researchtechnology
99
Researchtechnology in the US
101
Components of Researchtechnology
103
Interstitiality
104
What About Chemistry Instrumentation?
105
The Case of Interactive Molecular Graphics
106
Conclusion
109
Notes and References
110
Adam Hilger Ltd and the Development of Spectrochemical Analysis
111
Spectrum Analysis Before the First World War
112
Adam Hilger Ltd
114
Blackboxing the Spectroscope
116
Inventing the Routine
120
Routines Adopted
123
Conclusion
125
Notes and References
126
Histories of Baird Associates
129
A History of Devices
131
A History of Company Culture and Conflict
135
As a History of Social Networks
138
A History of Financing
140
Ideas of Science Technology and Culture
142
Notes and References
146
Production Control Instruments in the Chemical and Process Industries
149
Background
150
Understanding the Control Problem
151
Development of Theoretical Understanding
154
Consolidation 19401955
156
Electronics
158
Digital Computers
160
Conclusion
163
Notes and References
165
Acknowledgment
186
The Impact of Instrumentation on Chemical Species Identity From Chemical Substances to Molecular Species
188
Historical Steps Towards Canonical Substance Characterisation
190
Canonical Characterisation of New Substances
191
Support from Chemical Structure Theory
193
The Social Side of Substance Identity Claims
194
Introductory Remarks
196
The Rise of Spectroscopic Characterisation Since 1950
197
Parallel Changes
200
Towards Spectroscopic Substance Identity
201
The Structure Determination Approach
202
From Substance Identity to Molecular Species Identity
203
Conclusion
206
Acknowledgements
208
R B Woodward and the Reification of Chemical Structures
212
The Second Revolution
215
Conclusion
224
Notes and References
225
Mass Spectrometry and Structural Organic Chemistry
229
Use of Mass Spectrometry in the Petroleum and Chemical Industries
231
Klaus Biemann at MIT
235
Carl Djerassi at Stanford University
240
Acknowledgements
244
Impact of Instrumentation on Biomedical and Environmental Sciences
249
Reflections on the Role of Researchtechnology in the History of Science
251
The Invention of the ECD and its Dissemination to New Contexts of Use
252
Instrumentation in Environmental Analysis
254
Instruments of Separation in the Life Sciences
255
Conclusion
256
Notes and References
257
The Development of the Electron Capture Detector and its Impact on the Monitoring of DDT
259
The Place
260
Feeling the Draught
262
Saving the Hamster
263
Finding the Peaks
266
Creating the Electron Capture Detector
267
Finding a Molecule in a Billion
272
Worrying about Pollution
276
Instrumentation in Environmental Analysis 19351975
285
American Cyanamid and Infrared Spectrophotometry
286
American Cyanamid and Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry
290
Instrumental Analysis of Halocarbons
291
Gas Chromatography
292
Detection Limits and Detectors
294
Polluted Waters
295
Pesticides
299
PCBs
302
The Impact of Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Techniques on Biochemistry and Life Sciences
309
Paper and ThinLayer Chromatography
310
Paper Agar Starch and PAGE Electrophoresis
314
An Automatic Recording Apparatus and Other Machines
317
Haemoglobins or Human Genetics and the Competition Between Separation Techniques
320
The Romantic Period in the Study of Genetic Variations
323
Conclusions
326
Notes and References
327
Index
333
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