From Ecosystem Services to Benefits of the Baltic Sea: Indicators and Threats
Eutrophication, oil spills, and invasive species. Indicators and human benefits from ecosystem services of the Baltic Sea. These were the token of discussion at the "Nordic Workshop on Economic Analysis of the State of the Baltic Sea, NorWEBS" in Helsinki on 19-20 November 2009, arranged by MTT Agrifood Research Finland. A joint researcher team of economists and marine experts assembled at the workshop to discuss the three main threats to the ecology of the Baltic Sea and find respective indicators of the state of Baltic Sea to be used in economic valuation. Economic valuation of the ecosystem services is required for a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis on protective measures. Based on the presentations and discussions held in the NorWEBS-workshop we propose a framework for deriving the combined benefits from the Baltic Sea ecosystem services.
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algae biomass alien invasive species Baltic Sea ecosystem Baltic Sea NorWEBS biodiversity biofouling blue-green algae brackish water changes choice experiment method countries cultural services Damages to recreation ecological processes economic analysis Economic valuation Ecosystem Assessment ecosystem services effects of invasive environmental European Commission evaluation ex-ante example existence value Exxon Valdez Finland Finnish food web dynamics Garpe Gulf of Finland HELCOM Helsinki holistic measure Huhtala introduced species invasive alien species Kiirikki kulturella Leppäkoski and Gollasch marine ecosystems Millennium Ecosystem Assessment modelling monetary value nomic non-use values Nordic Council NorWEBS workshop number of dead nutrient concentrations nutrient reductions oil accidents oil spill damages Östersjön ports problem reduced eutrophication regulating and supporting require revealed preference methods risk spills and invasive supporting services threats tjänster tjänsterna travel cost method trophication valuation methods valuation study value estimates value of ecosystem water clarity water quality willingness to pay