From the finca to the maquila: labor and capitalist development in Central America
The oligarchic crises in Central America has provoked a variety of responses at different levels during the last decades. The development of new agroexports in the 1950s, the import substitution industrialization of the 1960s, and the current opening up of trade along with the development of new tradables sectors under the influence of globalization, represent attempts to modernize the region’s economies. The same has occurred at the political level with the current democratization processes that have meant competitive elections taking place in all the countries. It is at the social level that responses have been most weak and levels of poverty remain extremely high. This book presents an analysis of contemporary Central American history from a social perspective and, more specifically, from that of one of its main components: the world of labor. Despite undeniable changes, this world is still made up of three basic logics. Labor markets reflect an inability to generate sufficient employment. Labor relations remain precarious. And labor subjects and actors solid enough for their voice to be heard have not managed to establish themselves. The result is that the world of labor in Central America is still marked by vulnerability.
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on the Eve of Modernization
The Employment Structure in 195016
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accumulative agricultural American areas aspect bananas enclave Bulmer-Thomas census Central America coffee sector context contrast Costa Rica countries decade demands DGEC dynamic economic effect employment structure established export fact factors feminization fincas firms Free Trade Zones globalization growth rate Guatemala Guatemala City hand handicraft highlighted Honduras households implied important incomes increase indigenous labor force labor market labor movement labor process labor relations ladino logic Managua maquila industry meant Menjivar ment mentioned modernization process Moreover Nicaragua Nonetheless oligarchic crisis peasant percent Perez Sainz period phenomenon political PREALC precarious production proletarianization Puente Alto regard region reproductive respect result Rican rural salaries Salvador Salvadoran San Pedro Sula Sandinista Sarchi significant situation social social capital strike action structural adjustment subsistence Tegucigalpa tendency tion took place trade union movement union organizations urban wage labor wage workers women Workers Confederation world of labor