Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation: An Introduction with 400 Problems
Meeting the need for teaching material suitable for students of atmospheric science and courses on atmospheric radiation, this textbook covers the fundamentals of emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation from ultraviolet to infrared and beyond. Much of the contents applies to planetary atmosphere, with graded discussions providing a thorough treatment of subjects, including single scattering by particles at different levels of complexity. The discussion of the simple multiple scattering theory introduces concepts in more advanced theories, such that the more complicated two-stream theory allows readers to progress beyond the pile-of-plates theory.
The authors are physicists teaching at the largest meteorology department in the US at Penn State. The problems given in the text come from students, colleagues, and correspondents, and the figures designed especially for this book facilitate comprehension.
Ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of atmospheric science.
* Free solutions manual available for lecturers at www.wiley-vch.de/supplements/
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2 Absorption The Death of Photons
3 Scattering The Life of Photons
4 Radiometry and Photometry What you Get and What you See
5 Multiple Scattering Elementary
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absorption coefficient absorption cross section absorption optical angular approximately atmosphere attenuation average beam blackbody blue brightness calculations cloud coherent color decreases degree of polarization depends derivative detector diffusion dipole direction distance distribution downward irradiance droplets Earth’s electromagnetic emission emitted equation exponential Figure frequency hence horizon illuminated incident increases infinite infrared integral interference isotropic light scattered linear linear polarizing liquid water luminance measurements medium Mie theory molecular molecules Monte Carlo Monte Carlo method multiple scattering negligibly absorbing normal observer obtain optical thickness oscillator parameters particles path length phase difference photon physical plane plates polarized light problem radiance radiant energy radiative transfer rainbow reflectivity refractive index result scattering coefficient slab solar solid angle spectral spectrum specular reflection sphere Stokes parameters sunlight surface temperature terrestrial transmission transmitted unpolarized vector visible spectrum visible wavelengths water vapor wavenumber waves
Page xviii - fictions," viz., "imaginary cases." (Vaihinger, The Philosophy of "As If," p. 26.) Vaihinger clearly distinguishes between "fictions" and "hypotheses." He argues that "the latter are assumptions which are probable; assumptions, the truth of which can be proved by further experience. They are therefore verifiable. Fictions are never verifiable; for they are hypotheses which are known to be false [sic], but which are employed because of their utility