Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, Second Edition

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CRC Press, Dec 26, 2002 - Science - 480 pages
Completely revised and updated, Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, Second Edition presents a treatment of ecotoxicology ranging from molecular to global perspectives. The authors focus first on lower levels of organization and then extend their discussion to include landscape, regional, and biospheric topics, imparting a perspective as broad as the the problems facing practicing professionals.

See what's new in this edition:
  • A comprehensive chapter on the nature, transport, and fate of major classes of contaminants in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine systems
  • Side bars containing vignettes by leaders in the field let you benefit from the experience of diverse practitioners in the field
  • An appendix covering European environmental regulations

    The authors detail key contaminants of concern, explore their fate and cycling in the biosphere, and discuss bioaccumulation and the effects of contaminants at increasing levels of ecological organization. They cover regulatory aspects of the field in separate chapters that address the technical issues of risk assessment and discuss key U.S. and European legislation in the appendices. Complete with study questions, a detailed glossary, and vignettes by various experts exploring special topics in ecotoxicology, Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, Second Edition is an ideal introductory textbook for both undergraduate- and graduate-level courses, as well as a valuable reference for professionals.
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    Contents

    Introduction
    3
    II Current Need for Ecotoxicology Expertise
    5
    III Ecotoxicology
    11
    A Synthetic Science
    12
    IVB Science Technology and Practice
    14
    IVB2 Technological Goal
    16
    IVB3 Practical Goal
    18
    V Summary
    19
    Acute and Chronic Lethal Effects to Individuals
    173
    IC Test Types
    174
    II DoseResponse
    175
    IIB Fitting Data to DoseResponse Models
    177
    IIC Incipiency
    182
    IID Mixture Models
    183
    III Survival Time
    194
    IIIB Fitting SurvivalTime Data
    195

    Selected Readings
    20
    Environmental Contaminants
    21
    II Environmental Fate of Contaminants
    24
    IIA Contaminant Partitioning
    25
    IIB Degradation
    26
    III Major Classes of Contaminants
    27
    IIIA1 Aluminum
    28
    IIIA5 Copper
    29
    IIIA10 Zinc
    30
    IIID Organic Compounds
    33
    IIID1 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    34
    IIID2 Polychlorinated Biphenyls
    35
    IIID3 Polybrominated Biphenyls
    37
    IIID6 Chlorinated Phenols
    38
    IIID9 Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins PCDD and Dibenzofurans PCDF
    40
    IIID10 Organophosphate Insecticides
    41
    IIID12 Pyrethroid Insecticides
    42
    IIID13 Aromatic Herbicides
    43
    IIIE Organometallic Compounds
    45
    IIIF Emerging Contaminants of Concern
    46
    IIIF2 Alkylphenols
    47
    IV Summary
    50
    Bioaccumulation
    51
    Uptake Biotransformation Detoxification Elimination and Accumulation
    53
    II Uptake
    55
    IIB Reaction Order
    58
    IIIB Metals and Metalloids
    59
    IIIC Organic Compounds
    61
    IVB Modeling Elimination
    64
    V Accumulation
    69
    VI Summary
    72
    Factors Influencing Bioaccumulation
    75
    IB Bioavailability
    76
    II Chemical Qualities Influencing Bioavailability
    78
    IIA2 Bioavailability from Solid Phases
    79
    IIB Organic Contaminants
    82
    IIB2 Bioavailability from Solid Phases
    85
    III Biological Qualities Influencing Bioaccumulation
    86
    IIIB Allometry
    87
    IIIC Other Factors
    89
    IV Summary
    93
    Selected Readings
    94
    Bioaccumulation from Food and Trophic Transfer
    95
    II Qualifying Bioaccumulation from Food
    96
    IIB Trophic Transfer
    97
    IIB2 Estimating Trophic Transfer
    99
    III Inorganic Contaminants
    102
    IIIB Radionuclides
    107
    IV Organic Compounds
    108
    V Summary
    110
    Toxicant Effects
    111
    Molecular Effects and Biomarkers
    113
    II Organic Compound Detoxification
    114
    IIB Phase II
    116
    III Metallothioneins
    117
    IV Stress Proteins
    123
    V Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Response
    124
    VI DNA Modification
    126
    VII Enzyme Dysfunction and Substrate Pool Shifts
    127
    VIII Summary
    129
    Cells Tissues and Organs
    131
    II General Cytotoxicity and Histopathology
    132
    IIB Inflammation
    133
    IIC Other General Effects
    134
    IV Cancer
    139
    V Gills as an Example
    145
    VI Summary
    148
    Sublethal Effects to Individuals
    149
    II Selyean Stress
    150
    IV Development
    152
    IVB Sexual Characteristics
    155
    IVC Developmental Stability
    160
    V Reproduction
    161
    VI Physiology
    162
    VII Behavior
    164
    VIII Detecting Sublethal Effects
    168
    IX Summary
    171
    Selected Readings
    172
    IIIC Incipiency
    198
    IVB Abiotic Qualities
    200
    V Summary
    201
    Effects on Populations
    203
    II Epidemiology
    204
    III Population Dynamics and Demography
    207
    IIIB General Population Response
    208
    IIIC Metapopulation Dynamics
    210
    IIID Demographic Change
    215
    IIIE Energy Allocation by Individuals in Populations
    224
    IV Population Genetics
    226
    IVA Change in Genetic Qualities
    228
    IVB Acquisition of Tolerance
    229
    IVC Measuring and Interpreting Genetic Change
    231
    V Summary
    233
    Effects to Communities and Ecosystems
    235
    IB Context
    236
    II Interaction Involving Two or a Few Species
    238
    IIB Competition
    240
    IIIB Structure
    241
    IIIB2 Approaches to Measuring Community Structure
    249
    IIIC Function
    252
    IV Ecosystem Qualities
    254
    V Summary
    255
    Landscape to Global Effects
    257
    II Landscapes and Regions
    261
    III Continents and Hemispheres
    263
    IV Biosphere
    269
    IVC Global Warming
    270
    V Summary
    274
    Suggested Readings
    275
    Risk from Pollutants
    277
    Risk Assessment of Contaminants
    279
    IB Expressions of Risk
    282
    IC Risk Assessment
    283
    II Human Risk Assessment
    284
    IIB Hazard Identification Data Collection and Data Evaluation
    285
    IIC Exposure Assessment
    286
    II E Risk Characterization
    288
    II F Summary
    289
    III Ecological Risk Assessment
    290
    IIIA General
    291
    IIIC Analysis
    293
    IIIC2 Ecological Effects Characterization
    294
    IIID Risk Characterization
    295
    IV Conclusion
    300
    Suggested Readings
    301
    Risks from Exposure to Radiation
    303
    IIA Types of Radiation
    304
    IIB Concentrations Decay Constants and HalfLife
    305
    IIC Radionuclide Detection
    306
    IV Environmental Transport
    309
    IVA Models Using Rate Constants
    310
    IVC Models Using Equilibrium Conditions and DoseConversion Factors
    312
    IVC2 Ingestion Pathway
    313
    IVC3 External Irradiation
    314
    V Derivation of Risk Factors
    315
    VB1 Threshold Option
    317
    VB2 Linear versus LinearQuadratic
    318
    VI Risks to Humans from Exposure to Radiation
    319
    VII Ecological Effects from Radioactive Contamination
    320
    VIII Confidence in Risk Analyses
    322
    IX Summary
    323
    X Acknowledgments
    324
    Summary
    325
    Conclusions
    327
    III Science Importance of Ecotoxicology
    328
    Study Questions
    329
    International System SI of Units Prefixes
    337
    Miscellaneous Conversion Factors
    339
    Summary of US Laws and Regulations
    341
    Summary of European Union Laws and Regulations
    345
    Derivation of Units for Simple Bioaccumulation Models
    349
    Equations for the Estimation of Contaminant Exposure
    351
    Glossary
    355
    References
    385
    Index
    433
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