Fundamentals of Solid-state Electronics

Front Cover
World Scientific, 1991 - Technology & Engineering - 1010 pages
1 Review
This is perhaps the most comprehensive undergraduate textbook on the fundamental aspects of solid state electronics. It presents basic and state-of-the-art topics on materials physics, device physics, and basic circuit building blocks not covered by existing textbooks on the subject. Each topic is introduced with a historical background and motivations of device invention and circuit evolution. Fundamental physics is rigorously discussed with minimum need of tedious algebra and advanced mathematics. Another special feature is a systematic classification of fundamental mechanisms not found even in advanced texts. It bridges the gap between solid state device physics covered here with what students have learnt in their first two years of study.Used very successfully in a one-semester introductory core course for electrical and other engineering, materials science and physics junior students, the second part of each chapter is also used in an advanced undergraduate course on solid state devices. The inclusion of previously unavailable analyses of the basic transistor digital circuit building blocks and cells makes this an excellent reference for engineers to look up fundamental concepts and data, design formulae, and latest devices such as the GeSi heterostructure bipolar transistors.
 

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Contents

Electrons Bonds Bands and Holes Contents Chapter
2
CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS
4
Classification Schemes of Solids
5
Geometrical Classification Crystallinity vs Imperfection
6
Electrical Classification Electrical Conductivity
7
Mechanical Classification Binding Force
8
CRYSTALLINE AND IMPURE SEMICONDUCTORS ARE NEEDED
10
IN ELECTRON DEVICE APPLICATIONS
12
LIFETIMES
291
BandTrap Thermal SRH and Optical Recombination Lifetimes
294
Lifetimes for Simultaneous Presence of Many GRTT Mechanisms
295
PHYSICS AND DATA OF THE GRTT RATE COEFFICIENTS
296
Optical Emission Rate
300
Interband Impact Generation Rate
302
Interband Tunneling Rate
303
BandTrap Tunneling
305

Description of Crystal Lattice by Vectors
13
Miller Indices
16
ThreeDimensional Crystal Structures
17
Diamond Zinc Blende Wurzite Structures 1922
19
Calculation of the Atomic Density
22
Growing Single Crystals
23
WAVE MOTION OF ELECTRONS IN MATERIALS
31
Dual Character of Material Particles and Electromagnetic Radiation
32
The Bohr Model of Hydrogen Atom
35
Applications of the Electron Energy Level and Orbit Diagrams
41
Emission and Absorption of Light by Hydrogen Atom
43
Electron in an Electric Field Around a Proton
45
Summary
46
Properties and Interpretations of the Wavefunction ClassicalQuantum Connections
53
SOLUTIONS OF THE SCHRODINGER EQUATION
55
General Properties
56
Reflection of Electron at a Potential Step
57
Resonance Scattering by a Square Potential Well
60
Tunneling through a Square Potential Barrier
62
Tunneling through a Triangular Potential Barrier
64
Bound States in an Attractive Square Potential Well
66
The Hydrogen Atom
69
ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS IN MANYELECTRON ATOMS
83
ManyProton and ManyElectron Atoms
87
ELECTRONIC MODELS OF SEMICONDUCTORS AND SOLIDS
93
The Band Model
97
Filling the Energy Band Levels by Electrons
102
ELEMENTARY DERIVATIONS OF THE ENERGY BAND MODELS
108
The Nearly Free Electron Model
109
The TightBinding Model
117
Energy Band Diagrams of Semiconductors
125
Energy Band of Metals and Conductors
131
COMPLETELY FILLED BAND DOES NOT CARRY A CURRENT The Concept of Holes
139
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PROBLEMS
151
INTRODUCTION
152
Equilibrium
153
PURE SEMICONDUCTOR CRYSTAL
159
IMPURE SEMICONDUCTOR
160
Donors Acceptors Isoelectronic Traps
161
Charge States of Donors and Acceptors
163
Binding Energy of Trapped Electrons and Holes
165
ELECTRON AND HOLE CONCENTRATIONS AT THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM
169
The FermiDirac Distribution Function
170
Electron and Hole Concentrations Elementary Analysis
174
Electron and Hole Concentrations Advanced Analysis
175
CALCULATIONS OF THE FERMI ENERGY LEVEL AND THE CONCENTRATION OF ELECTRONS AND HOLES
181
Ep N and P in Impure or Extrinsic Semiconductors
187
The Charge Neutrality Condition
188
Criterion of Extrinsic Semiconductor
190
Components of Carrier Concentration are not Additive
191
Summary of Carrier Concentration Equations
192
Temperature Dependences of N P and EF
193
Intrinsic Temperature
194
Quantitative Definition of T
195
Components of Carrier Concentration are Additive when TT
197
DEVICE ESSENTIAL ADVANCED TOPICS
199
High Carrier Concentration Effects
200
Conditions of Impurity Deionization
203
Impurity Occupation Factor
204
Impurity Deionization Examples
205
Deionization at Low Temperatures
209
Impurity Bands
214
Carrier Screening of Impurity
218
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PROBLEMS
231
INTRODUCTION
232
DRIFT
233
Drift Current Drift Mobility and Conductivity
238
Temperature Dependences of the Drift Mobility
239
Ionized Impurity Scattering
240
Phonons for Describing Lattice Scattering
241
Lattice Scattering
246
Electric Field Dependence of Mobility
251
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Conductivities of a Semiconductor
252
Intrinsic Conductivity of Pure Semiconductor
253
DIFFUSION
254
The Einstein Relationship
259
Examples of Diffusion Current
260
CONSTANCY OF THE FERMI ENERGY LEVEL
261
The QuasiFermi Levels and QuasiFermi Potentials
262
CONTINUITY EQUATION OF CHARGE AND CURRENT
265
THE SHOCKLEY EQUATIONS OF SEMICONDUCTORS
268
GENERATION RECOMBINATION TRAPPING AND TUNNELING
270
Interband Thermal Generation and Recombination
273
Interband Optical Generation and Recombination
275
Interband Auger Recombination and Impact Generation
278
BandTrap Thermal SRH GenerationRecombinationTrapping
281
BandTrap Optical GenerationRecombinationTrapping
285
BandTrap Auger Capture and Impact Emission
286
36nO Elastic Tunneling
287
36n4 Inelastic Tunneling
289
36n5 Collective Transitions
290
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PROBLEMS
307
METALOXIDESEMICONDUCTOR CAPACITOR MOSC
311
INTRODUCTION
312
Fabrication of an Silicon VLSI MOSC
314
Ideal CV Curves
320
Real CV Curves
323
CHARGE CONTROL MODEL OF MOSC
325
Charge Control CV Theory without Energy Band Diagram
336
Depletion Capacitance
338
HighFrequency Capacitance
339
LowFrequency Capacitance
342
Accumulation Capacitance
344
Summary
346
Advanced ChargeControl CV Theory
347
Relating Surface Potential to Gate Voltage
349
The Exact LowFrequency MOS Capacitance
353
Energy Band Diagram of MOSC
354
TRANSIENTS IN MOSC
363
Capacitance Transients
365
Current Transients
369
EXACT SMALLSIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF MOSC
374
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PROBLEMS
375
PN AND OTHER JUNCTION DIODES
381
INTRODUCTION
382
FABRICATION OF A DIFFUSED PN JUNCTION DIODE
385
Physics and Data of the Diffusivity
389
Diffused Junction Depth Calculation
395
EQUILIBRIUM ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF A PN JUNCTION
397
Equilibrium Energy Band Diagram
399
Intrinsic Fermi Level and Electric Potential
403
Equilibrium Potential Barrier Height in a pn Junction
404
Equilibrium Potential Variation in a pn Junction
408
Application of the Gauss Theorem to a pn Junction
416
Comparing the Depletion Approximation with the Exact Solution
418
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A PN JUNCTION
420
Energy Band Diagram of a Biased pn Junction
424
Forward bias
427
The Shockley Diode Equation
430
Physics of the Shockley Diode Equation
432
Numerical Example of a Shockley Diode
436
Breakdown of Reverse DC Current in a pn Junction
441
Mathematical Formulation
443
Basic Physics of the Parameters
446
Simple Solution
448
ExperimentalTheoretical Comparison
451
SMALLSIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A PN JUNCTION
455
SmallSignal ChargeControl Circuit Elements
456
SmallSignal Numerical Examples of a Si pn Junction
458
SWITCHING TRANSIENTS IN A PN JUNCTION
461
ChargeControl Switching Analysis of a pn Junction
462
TurnOn Transient in a pn Junction
464
TurnOff Transient in a pn Junction
467
Capacitance and Current Trapping Transients in a pn Junction
470
METALSEMICONDUCTOR DIODE
474
Equilibrium Energy Band Diagrams of the Schottky Barrier
478
CurrentVoltage Characteristics of the MS Diode Bethe Theory
483
Experimental MS Diodes
489
Effect of Semiconductor Voltage Drop Molt Theory
493
Integrated Circuit Schottky Barrier Diode Layouts
497
TUNNEL DIODES
499
LIMITING MECHANISMS OF DC TERMINAL CURRENT OF DIODES
500
Current Limits in pn Junction Diodes
502
Contact Resistance
506
SEMICONDUCTORSEMICONDUCTOR HETEROJUNCTION DIODES
510
Trappy ss Interface
512
Electrical Characteristics of ss Heterojunctions
513
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PROBLEMS
523
METALOXIDESEMICONDUCTOR AND OTHER FIELDEFFECT TRANSISTORS 600 INTRODUCTION
524
PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF THE INVERSIONCHANNEL MOSFET 5M Coordinate System
526
Body of the Semiconductor
527
Channel Type Channel Length Channel Thickness
528
QUALITATIVE DESCRIPTION OF DC MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS
529
Four Basic MOST CurrentVoltage Characteristics
530
TYPICAL FABRICATION STEPS OF AN NCHANNEL MOSFET
533
Description of the Fabrication Steps
535
SMALLSIGNAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODEL OF MOSFET
559
SWITCHING PROPERTIES OF MOSFET
576
CIRCUIT APPLICATIONS OF MOSFET
596
BEYOND THE CONDUCTIVITY MODULATION MODEL
644
OTHER FIELDEFFECT TRANSISTORS EVOLUTION HISTORY
687
BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR AND OTHER
702
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PROBLEMS
703
FABRICATION OF A DOUBLE DIFFUSED SILICON BJT
709
SMALLSIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BJT
791
LARGESIGNAL SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS OF BJT
829
CIRCUIT APPLICATIONS OF BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR
885
THE HETEROSTRUCTURE BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS
931
THE FOURLAYER PNPN DEVICES
955
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PROBLEMS
981
APPENDIX A NOTATION CONVENTION
992
Copyright

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

References to this book

All Book Search results »

Bibliographic information