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On the Definition of the Formants
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acoustic amplitude articulation articulatory average axis BETA calculate Chapter circuit parameters close saturation close vowels constant cross-area constriction cut-off frequency damped oscillations DATA ENTRY SWITCH depicted in figure derive Dutch electric networks exponential diabolo exponential horn factor FIELD KEY figure VII.5 figure XI.6 fore formant formula formant frequencies formant positions four-terminal network front diabolo Ft and F2 function GOTO Hellwag's instance larynx length linguistic mathematical midsagittal plane monograph monolithic diphthongs mouth tube mouth-opening node nomogram open vowels palatograms particle velocity Peterson and Barney phonetic predict PRESS END PRESS PROGRAM produce PROGRAM START KEY proportional axial growth real vocal tract second formant shape sinusoidal vibrations sound pressure stationary wave pattern talker theory Thevenin's theorem throat tube tion tongue tube with constant twin-tube method twin-tube model twin-tube resonator TWNTE two-formant University of Amsterdam vector velocity of sound VIII volume velocity vowel triangle Webster's equation Webster's horn equation