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Aleutian Islands Appalachian arising atoms beneath the crust beneath the earth's cause Charles Darwin coast continents contraction Cretaceous crumpling Darwin deep density deposits depth disturbances earth earth's crust earthquake belt earthquakes effective rigidity elevation Eocene expulsion of lava faults feet fluid folds forces formed geological geologists globe granite height heretofore Himalayas interior intumescence isostacy land lateral pressure lava from beneath layer just beneath liquid Lord Kelvin mass matter molecules molten rock moun mountain chains mountain formation mountain ranges mountains and plateaus movements nature nucleus nutation observed ocean bottom Pacific Ocean Palaeozoic phenomena physical plastic produced region result ridges rise sea bottom secular cooling secular leakage sediments seismic sea waves sinking solid South America steam Straits of Magellan strata stress-difference stresses structure subsidence surface tains temperature theory of mountain Tibet tides tion trenches trough uplift valleys vertical viscous volcanoes water hemispheres whole yielding
Seite 267 - We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. To this purpose the philosophers say that nature does nothing in vain, and more is in vain when less will serve; for nature is pleased with simplicity, and affects not the pomp of superfluous causes.
Seite 176 - To form some conception of the degree of coarse-grainedness indicated by this conclusion, imagine a globe of water or glass, as large as a football,1 to be magnified up to the size of the earth, each constituent molecule being magnified in the same proportion. The magnified structure would be more coarse grained than a heap of small shot, but probably less coarsegrained than a heap of footballs.
Seite 177 - Kelvin has shown that, if a drop of water were magnified to the size of the earth, the molecules of water would be of a size intermediate between that of a cricketball and of a marble.
Seite 183 - It seems, therefore, nearly certain, with no other evidence than is afforded by the tides, that the tidal effective' rigidity of the earth must be greater than that of glass*.
Seite 157 - The New Theory of Earthquakes and Mountain Formation as illustrated by Processes now at work in the Depths of the Sea.
Seite 272 - ... may confidently come to the conclusion that the forces which slowly and by little starts uplift continents, and those which at successive periods pour forth volcanic matter from open orifices, are identical.
Seite 177 - The molecule system probably presents some sort of analogy with that of a triple star ; the three atoms, replacing the stars, revolving about one another in some sort of dance which cannot be exactly described. I doubt whether it is possible to say how large a part of the space occupied by the whole molecule is occupied by the atoms ; but perhaps the atoms bear to the molecule some such relationship as the molecule to the drop of water referred to. Finally, the corpuscles may stand to the atom in...
Seite 183 - The solid crust would yield so freely to the deforming influence of sun and moon that it would simply carry the waters of the ocean up and down with it, and there would be no sensible rise and fall of water relatively to the land.