Game-Theoretical Semantics: Essays on Semantics by Hintikka, Carlson, Peacocke, Rantala and Saarinen

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Esa Saarinen
Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 5, 2007 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 394 pages
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This book is a collection of studies applying game-theoretical concepts and ideas to analysing the semantics of natural language and some formal languages. The bulk of the book consists of several papers by Hintikka, Carlson and Saarinen and discusses several of the central problems of the semantics of natural language.

The topics covered are the semantics of natural language quantifiers, conditionals, pronouns and anaphora more generally. Hintikka’s famous essay presenting examples of "branching quantifier structures" in English, as well as one formulating his "any-every thesis", are included. The book also includes Hintikka’s closely argued philosophical discussion of the relationships between the new semantical games with the language games of Wittgenstein. Other papers apply the game-theoretical approach to formal languages including tense logics and tense anaphora (Saarinen), deontic logic and Ross’ paradox (Hintikka), and usual predicate logic (Rantala). The latter amounts to an explication of the "impossible possible" worlds as is shown in Hintikka’s concluding paper.

 

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Contents

LANGUAGEGAMES
1
QUANTIFIERS IN LOGIC AND QUANTIFIERS IN NATURAL LANGUAGES
27
QUANTIFIERS VS QUANTIFICATION THEORY
48
SOME LOGICAL PROBLEMS
81
COMMENTS ON PROFESSOR HINTIKKAS PAPER
118
REJOINDER TO PEACOCKE
135
SEMANTICAL GAMES AND THE BACHPETERS PARADOX
153
CONDITIONALS GENERIC QUANTIFIERS AND OTHER APPLICATIONS OF SUBGAMES
179
BACKWARDSLOOKING OPERATORS IN TENSE LOGIC AND IN NATURAL LANGUAGE
215
A CASE STUDY OF THE RELATIONS AMONG QUANTIFIERS PRONOUNS AND PROPOSITIONAL ATTITUDES
245
THE ROSS PARADOX AS EVIDENCE FOR THE REALITY OF SEMANTICAL GAMES
328
A NEW KIND OF NONSTANDARD MODEL FOR FIRSTORDER LOGIC
347
IMPOSSIBLE POSSIBLE WORLDS VINDICATED
367
INDEX OF NAMES
381
INDEX OF SUBJECTS
384
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Page 8 - ... one as far as the purely descriptive function of language is concerned.8 If the picture theory disappears from the picture in Wittgenstein's later philosophy, it therefore is not because it was thrown by the board but because it faded away. 7. Language-games as the link between language and reality What happened, then? One especially instructive way of looking at Wittgenstein's development beyond the Tractatus is to emphasize the role of his insight into the need of analyzing those very representational...
Page 4 - The configuration of objects produces states of affairs. In a state of affairs objects fit into one another like the links of a chain. In a state of affairs objects stand in a determinate relation to one another." (Tractatus 2.03-2.032.) This has prompted a weird misinterpretation according to which the basic "furniture of the world" consists according to the Tractatus entirely of things (logicians' "individuals"). This interpretation is a wrong inference from a correct observation concerning Wittgenstein's...
Page 4 - King's College is on fire' can be a picture of King's College on fire, we need only ask ourselves: 'How should we explain what the sentence means?' Such an explanation might consist of ostensive definitions. We should say, eg, 'this is King's College' (pointing to the building), 'this is fire
Page 8 - A visitor from Mars — or a child learning to speak — can only gather the meanings of our words from the behavior of language-users. The representational relationships between language and reality have as it were their mode of existence in certain rule-governed human activities. These activities are just what Wittgenstein calls language-games. They are what according to Wittgenstein creates and sustains the representative relationships between language and reality. Perhaps the clearest single...

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