Gate stack and silicide issues in silicon processing II: symposium held April 17-19, 2001, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
S. A. Campbell
Materials Research Society, Feb 26, 2002 - Computers - 288 pages
As technologists consider scaling microelectronic devices below the 100nm node, it has become increasingly clear that many new materials will be introduced into the fab line, not only for interconnect, but into the basic transistor itself. Determining the best materials, the best processing techniques for depositing and using these materials, and integrating them into mainstream CMOS process flows are all extremely challenging tasks. Much of this volume attempts to find a replacement for silicon dioxide. Hafnium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, and their silicates and aluminates are the subjects of intense scrutiny, but other materials are being considered as well. Obtaining a suitable large capacitance, while simultaneously obtaining low charge density in the film, and finding a material that has adequate thermal stability is proving difficult. A second focus of the volume is the material and process used to form the self-aligned silicide. Real-time electron microscopy of metal-silicon reactions is providing valuable new insights.
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2001 Materials Research alloy amorphous Appl atoms band gap based WSix C54 phase capacitance capacitors capping layer chemical vapor deposition CMOS Co-silicide contamination CoSi2 crystalline DCS based density depletion deposition temperature devices dielectric constant diffusion disilicide electrical ellipsometry energy etch experimental films deposited films grown formation formed function gate electrode gate stack grain HfO2 high-k films high-k gate dielectric increase interface interfacial layer ISBN leakage current Lett Materials Research Society measured metal MOSFET Ni-silicided Ni/Co NiSi NiSi2 nitridation nitrogen nucleation oxide layer p-type peak Phys poly poly-Si polycide precursor Proc rapid thermal rapid thermal annealing reaction RTP1 RuO2 samples sccm Semiconductor sheet resistance shown in Figure shows SiGe silicide silicon silicon oxide SiO2 spectroscopy sputtering stoichiometry structure substrate surface Symp Technology TEOS thermal stability thin film TiO2 TiSi2 titanium transistor voltage wafers WSix X-ray diffraction zirconium