Gender and racial discrimination in pay and promotion for NHS nurses
For many years the NHS has been subject to allegations that gender and racial discrimination are a feature of the internal labour market for qualified nurses. This paper examines this issue with regard to the promotion process using 1994 survey data. We start by rejecting the assumption of covariate exogeneity inherent in the ordered probit model. A full simultaneous model is then developed which has important consequences for estimates of the influence of gender, ethnicity, training and career interruptions. We find evidence of significant differences in speed of promotion between gender and ethnic groups, which imply large differences in career earnings.
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Age career began Asian nurses auxiliary models Beishon black and Asian Blackaby career breaks career interruptions Covariates Females Males D. J. Snower differences distribution Earnings Differentials econometric effect endogeneity errors in parentheses Ethnic German ethnic minorities Evidence Exogenous participation explanatory variables gender and racial German Germany grades H high ability history White 3.37 I. N. Gang identification Immigrant internal labour market job grade model Jones and Makepeace Journal K. F. Zimmermann Labor Economics length of career Married Married with children maximum likelihood Migration NHS nursing non-white normalisation Number of career number of training Ordered Probit Estimates ordered probit model Owner-occupier part-time participation and training participation histories PAY AND PROMOTION Policy Studies Institute promotion process R. T. Riphahn regression RGNs School-age children significant simulated speed of promotion Standard errors Table training and participation training episodes training history White training spells University of Leicester vector women