General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications
An attempt to formulate common laws that apply to virtually every scientific field, this conceptual approach has had a profound impact on such widely diverse disciplines as biology, economics, psychology, and demography.
On the History of Systems Theory
Trends in Systems Theory
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allometric animals appears applied approach aspects atoms basic Bertalanffy biological catabolism causality cell characteristics chemical classical classical physics closed systems complex components consideration considered constant contrast cultural cybernetics defined differential equations dynamic elements energy entities entropy equifinality equilibrium essentially evolution example existence experience expressed fact feedback fields formulation function game theory growth curves homeostasis homeostatic important increase individual information theory interaction isomorphic kinetics language laws living organism Lotka Ludwig von Bertalanffy machine mathematical means mechanisms mechanistic mental metabolic rate modern nature open systems organismic phenomena philosophy physics physiological possible present principle problems processes protein psychology psychophysical quantitative reaction reality regulations relations scientific sense servomechanisms similar so-called social sciences sociology specific steady structure symbolic system concept system theory teleology theoretical theory of open thermodynamics tion Unity of Science universe vitalistic Volterra whole world picture York