General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications
An attempt to formulate common laws that apply to virtually every scientific field, this conceptual approach has had a profound impact on such widely diverse disciplines as biology, economics, psychology, and demography.
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On the History of Systems Theory
Trends in Systems Theory
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according action activity animals appears applied approach aspects basic become behavior Bertalanffy biological body called cell certain characteristics chemical classical closed complex components concept concerned consequence consideration considered constant contrast cultural defined definition depends determined differential discussed dynamic elements energy entities entropy equations equilibrium essentially evolution example existence experience expressed fact fields final follow formulation function growth human important increase independent individual interaction language laws lead limited living machine mathematical matter means mechanisms mental metabolism nature observed open systems organism phenomena physics possible present principle problems processes progressive psychology question reaction reality reason recent regulations relations represent respect scientific sense similar simple social society space specific steady structure symbolic system theory theoretical thermodynamics thinking tion true universe various weight whole