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Economic Issues of General Payroll Taxes
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analysis annual applied Australia benefit-linked payroll taxes Canada Canadian Tax Canadian Tax Foundation cash flow cash flow tax chapter compensation compliance costs consumption tax corporate countries coverage credits direct tax approach distortions earmarked economic effects of payroll efficiency costs employer payroll tax employment effects equity exemption level federal finance firms fiscal flat rate flat tax fringe benefits Hence impact imposed incentives increase indirect individual inputs issues labour earnings labour supply levies lower Manitoba million Northwest Territories OECD offset Ontario operational payments payroll tax rate pension percent personal income tax provinces provincial payroll taxes Quebec raise rate structure rebates reduce relative replace the GST RRSP savings self-employed self-employment services tax shift social security social security contributions supra footnote tax base tax burden tax incidence tax mix taxable threshold taxation tion value-added tax wage rates wage tax workers