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acquired alliance ancient army Asia Austria Balkan Peninsula Baltic barbarians became become Bishop Bohemia Brandenburg Burgundian Burgundy Carolingian cause Charlemagne Charles Christian Church cities civilization conflict conquered conquest Constantinople Continent coun crown Crusades Danube duchy dukes East Eastern Elbe Elector of Brandenburg Electors Emperor enemies English European existence fact feudal fifteenth century foreign formed Franks French frontier GARDINER'S Gaul Germany and Italy Greece Hapsburgs Hence HISTORY OF ENGLAND history of Europe ideas imperial infidel intermediate region Italian King of France King of Prussia kingdom Lorraine Louis XIV margraves Mediterranean Middle Ages military modern monarchy North organized Ostrogoths Papacy patriotism peace period Poland political history polyarchy Pomerania Pope possession principle of nationality religious restored Revolution Rhine Roman Empire Rome royal Savoy seventeenth century Silesia sixteenth Slavic Slavs sovereign Spain Spanish spirit Swiss territory Teutonic Knights thirteenth century tion Tsech tury vassal West
Page 143 - Law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to take part personally or by their representatives in its formation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes.
Page vii - Nature has written on the map of Europe the destiny of certain regions. She determines the aptitudes and, hence, the destiny of a people. The very movement of events in history creates, moreover, inevitable exigencies, one thing happening because other things have happened. On the other hand, nature has left, on the map of Europe, free scope to the uncertainty of various possibilities. History is full of accidents, the necessity of which cannot be demonstrated.
Page 142 - When, owing to the faults of its Kings, the country detached itself from Royalty it raised itself all at once to the idea of Humanity. French writers of the eighteenth century...
Page 163 - It is not true that the development of material interests promotes peace. Commerce, as the messenger of peace, is a mythological character. In its origin it was brigandage; in ancient, mediaeval, and modern times it occasioned wars. Men fought on the Baltic for herring, and on all the seas for spices.