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acquired alliance ancient army Asia Austria Balkan Peninsula Baltic barbarians became become Bishop Bohemia Brandenburg Burgundian Burgundy Carolingian cause Charlemagne Charles Christian Church cities civilization conflict conquered conquest Constantinople Continent coun crown Crusades Danube destiny duchy dukes East Eastern Elbe Elector of Brandenburg Electors Emperor enemies England European existence fact feudal fifteenth century foreign formed Franks French frontier Gaul Germany and Italy Greece Hapsburgs Hence history of Europe Hungary ideas imperial infidel intermediate region Italian King of France King of Prussia kingdom land Lorraine Louis XIV margraves Mediterranean ment Middle Ages military modern monarchy Moreover North organized pagans Papacy patriotism peace pire Poland political Pomerania Pope possession principle of nationality religious Renaissance restored Revolution Rhine Rome royal Savoy seventeenth century Silesia sixteenth Slavic Slavs sovereign Spain Spanish spirit Swiss territory Teutonic Knights thirteenth century tion Tsech tury United Provinces vassal West
Page 143 - Law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to take part personally or by their representatives in its formation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes.
Page vii - Nature has written on the map of Europe the destiny -of certain regions. She determines the aptitudes and, hence, the destiny of a people. The very movement of events in history creates, moreover, inevitable exigencies, one thing happening because other things have happened. On the other hand, nature has left, on the map of Europe, free scope to the uncertainty of various possibilities. History is full of accidents, the necessity of which cannot be demonstrated.
Page 142 - When, owing to the faults of its Kings, the country detached itself from Royalty it raised itself all at once to the idea of Humanity. French writers of the eighteenth century...
Page 163 - It is not true that the development of material interests promotes peace. Commerce, as the messenger of peace, is a mythological character. In its origin it was brigandage; in ancient, mediaeval, and modern times it occasioned wars. Men fought on the Baltic for herring, and on all the seas for spices.
Page 164 - ... Welsh question, to which Parliament will doubtless soon be obliged to give serious attention. This view of a tendency toward individualism is most emphatically asserted in a recent work entitled " General View of the Political History of Europe" by Ernest Lavisse, professor at the Sorbonne. He says : "The immense development of commercial intercourse, the hundredfold increase of ways and means of communication, the medley of financial interests in the exchanges of Paris, London, and Berlin, constitute...
Page 43 - French franc more than ninetenths, from the middle of the thirteenth century to the end of the eighteenth century.
Page 61 - Her intellect," says an eminent historian, "gave expression to the whole civilization of that period, — religious, feudal, and knightly. The French wrote heroic poems, built castles and cathedrals, and interpreted the texts of Aristotle and the Scriptures. Their songs, buildings, and scholastic philosophy verged upon perfection.
Page 6 - As far as she could, Rome destroyed the individual genius of nations; she seems to have rendered them unqualified for a national existence. When the public life of the Empire ceased, Italy, Gaul, and Spain were thus unable to become nations. Their great historical existence did not commence until after the arrival of the barbarians, and after several centuries of experiments amid violence and calamity.
Page 135 - Reason could not fail to be revolutionary, because it denied tradition and built on a tabula rasa. It seemed at first to be entirely disinterested, lofty, and serene, but very soon it stooped to regard life, manners, and politics. Finding these unreasonable, it began to wage war against unreason, and became the philosophy of the eighteenth century.
Page 166 - ... estranged from one another, in proportion to the growth of international interests. . . . The long evolution begun with the ruin of the Roman Empire, hindered and sometimes arrested by sentiments, ideas and customs, is in our day being completed; national individualism is now an accomplished fact. Where individualism is of ethnographical substance it displays its irreconcilable spirit in a naive way. Hungary is thrown into a violent passion because a flag is placed where it has no right to be....