Genes, Women, Equality

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Oxford University Press, Oct 14, 1999 - Medical - 336 pages
Genetics is not gender neutral in its impact. Mahowald cites a wide range of biological and psychosocial examples that reveal its different impact on men and women, especially with regard to reproduction and caregiving. She examines the extent to which these differences are associated with gender injustice, arguing for positions that reduce inequality between the sexes. The critical perspective Mahowald brings to this analysis is an egalitarian interpretation of feminism that demands attention to inequalities arising from racism, ethnocentricism, albleism, and classism as well as sexism. Eschewing a notion of equality as sameness, Mahowald defines equality as attribution of the same value to different objects. Gender justice, she claims, imputes the same value to men and women, despite their differences. It can only be maximized by practical efforts to equalize the burdens and benefits associated with genetics. The topics considered include participation in research, allocation of genetic services, cultural difference, sex selection, misattributed paternity, prenatal and preimplantation diagnosis, carrier testing, genetic interventions, genetic disabilities, preferences for genetic ties to offspring, genetic susceptibility to late onset disorders, behavioral genetics, genetic discrimination in employment and insurance, and human cloning. Cases, both real and concocted, are used to illustrate the questions addressed.
 

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Contents

A FEMINIST STANDPOINT FOR GENETICS
13
Standpoint and Standpoint Theory
14
Feminist Standpoint Theory and Its Extension to Individuals
20
The Case of Maternal PKU
23
WOMEN IN GENETICS RESEARCH
31
Women in Human Genome Research
32
Do Women Conduct Research in Genetics Differently from Men?
35
Women as Research Subjects in Genetics
39
Gender Differences in the Impact of Cystic Fibrosis
164
A Case and a Pedigree
165
Attitudes of Geneticists and Genetic Counselors on Misattributed Paternity
167
Arguments For and Against Disclosure of Misattributed Paternity
169
SICKLE CELL DISEASE AND CARRIER TESTING
179
Gender Differences in the Impact of Sickle Cell Disease
180
The History of Sickle Cell Disease
182
A Case and a Pedigree
184

Efforts to Include Women in Research
42
WOMEN IN CLINICAL GENETICS
49
Gender Differences in Reproductive Genetics
50
Psychosocial Implications of Genetic Testing for Women
53
Genetic Counseling and Women
56
Nondirectiveness versus Directiveness
59
GENDER JUSTICE IN GENETICS
69
Justice in General Gender Justice in Particular
70
Theories of Justice and Feminism
76
Which Theory of Justice Which Version of Feminism?
79
ALLOCATION OF GENETIC SERVICES AND THE FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY
87
Unjust Overdistribution
88
Distributing the Same to Each
89
Underdistribution of Resources
90
Abortion and the Poor
95
Poverty Race and Passive Eugenics
97
Cases Involving Allocation or Genetic Services
99
ETHNICITY CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND SEX SELECTION
105
Ethnicity and Culture as Related Variables
106
CulturallyDefined Gender Differences and Challenges
108
Respect tor Autonomy versus Respect tor Cultural Differences
112
Sex Selection from an Egalitarian Feminist Standpoint
115
GENETIC VERSUS GESTATIONAL TIES TO CHILDREN
127
Distinguishing between Genetics and Gestation
128
Gender Differences in Attitudes toward the Genetic Tie
130
Why Gestation?
136
Why Genetics?
137
Counseling Considerations
138
DISABILITIES FEMINISM AND CAREGIVING
143
Feminism ana Advocacy tor Those Who Are Disabled
144
Dirrerent Versions oi Feminism
145
Reproductive Rights and the Moral Status of the Fetus
147
The Compatibility Question
148
Caring for People with Disabilities
151
NOTE AND NOTATION FOR CHAPTERS 9 10 AND 11
161
CYSTIC FIBROSIS AND MISATTRIBUTED PATERNITY
163
Pro and Con
185
GENETIC TESTING FOR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO BREAST CANCER
193
Impact oi Breast Cancer on Women
194
A Case and a Pedigree
196
Genetic Testing for Susceptibility to Breast Cancer
198
Inclusion of Consumers as a Model for Genetics
201
PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS AND ABORTION
209
Methods or Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis
210
Definitions and Methods of Abortion
211
Methods of Disposing of Affected Embryos
215
Difrerent Circumstances Difrerent Rationales
217
GENOMIC ALTERATIONS AND WOMEN
225
Cell Types and Methods or Altering the Genome
226
Preventive Gene Therapy versus Interventions for Enhancement
230
A More Adequate Framework
232
Arguments Pro and Con Genetic Intervention
233
BEHAVIORAL GENETICS AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN WOMEN
243
The Meaning and Scope of Behavioral Genetics
244
Gender Differences in Behavioral Conditions
247
Alcoholism and Women
249
A Case Involving Probable Hereditary Alcoholism
251
EMPLOYMENT HEALTH INSURANCE AND THE PUBLICPRIVATE DISTINCTION
261
Genetic ana Gender Discrimination in Employment
262
Genetic and Gender Discrimination in Health Insurance
265
Genetic Information ana the PublicPrivate Distinction
267
Insurance and Family Issues
271
Human Cloning Women and Parenthood
279
Human Embryo Cloning
280
Nuclear Transfer from Mature Somatic Cells
282
The Genetic Bias of Human Cloning and Infertility Treatment
283
Real Parents Real Mothers
289
TOWARD GENDER EQUALITY IN GENETICS
297
NAME INDEX
301
SUBJECT INDEX
305
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