Global Benefits and Costs of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
Environment Canada, 1997 - Air - 70 pages
"Signed on September 16, 1987, the Montreal Protocol committed the original signatories to a schedule of reductions in the use of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS). The Protocol, subsequently signed by 163 countries as of March 1997, became effective on January 1, 1989. Since that time, a series of amendments (London, 1990; Copenhagen, 1992; Vienna, 1995) have strengthened the original Protocol in terms of the number of substances covered and the speed and extent of reductions required."--Page 5. "In this report, the evidence on the impacts of the Montreal Protocol provides the base information on which both the benefit and cost assessments are built... This report also assesses the incremental costs of the Montreal Protocol relative again to the alternative of no controls in which ozone-depleting substances would have continued to be used at historical rates of growth of consumption."--Page 1-2.
COSTS OF REPLACING OZONEDEPLETING SUBSTANCES
NET BENEFITS OF THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL
Aerosols air conditioning alternatives applications Article 5(1 assessment averted benefits and costs blowing agent carbon tetrachloride cataracts Consumption of CFCs Consumption of Methyl consumption of ozone-depleting Consumption tonnes controls growth rate Controls Scenarios cost estimates cost per kilogram costs Developed countries data from UNEP deaths depleting substances developed country estimate discount rate Environment Canada Environmental Protection Agency Estimates by ARC Exhibit foam Global Consumption halon HCFCs health effects health impacts incidence rates increased UV-B incremental costs industry latitude band melanoma skin cancers Methyl Bromide methyl chloroform Montreal Protocol Controls Montreal Protocol scenario Multilateral Fund non-melanoma skin cancer overall ozone depletion ozone destruction ozone layer ozone-depleting substances polyurethane population production reduction schedule Refrigeration and Air Replenishment Report 1996 result sector Solvents squamous cell carcinoma Sterilants TEAP Replenishment Report tion TOC Co-Chair Total costs Developed Total Quantity Replaced Total tonnes displaced U.S. Dollars U.S. Environmental Protection upper bound incremental UV-B radiation