Global Risk Governance: Concept and Practice Using the IRGC Framework

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Ortwin Renn, Katherine D. Walker
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 18, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 370 pages
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Japanese government planners set out in the 1960s to build a barrage on the Nagara River, one of the last major free?owing rivers in Japan. Conceived during a period of rapid growth in the Japanese economy, the barrage was part of a national effort to ensure adequate water supplies for future economic development as well as to reduce ?oodingrisks to downstream communities. A string of lawsuits brought by groups concerned about the impact of the dam on ecological and ?sheries - sourcesresulted incostlydelays:thedamwasnotcompletedformorethan25years. The 1990s witnessed the start of a kind of biotech gold rush toward the use of genetic modi?cation (GM) as tool to develop more productive crops through the introduction of herbicide, insect and disease resistance to feed a growing world. Opponents of the rapid deployment of GM crops have raised concerns about the safety of the technology and about its socio-economic, cultural, and ethical implications. The debate over this issue divided the world – for example, the US allowed the development of GM crops to move forward and now accounts for over half the GM crops grown worldwide whereas the European Union only recently lifted a de facto moratorium imposed in 1998 and now authorises products on a case by case basis. Worldwide, the development and use of GM crops is still barely covered by a patchwork of regulations and guidelines, ranging from strict prohibition to none at all, and creating its own sets of disparities and risks.
 

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Contents

White Paper on Risk Governance Toward an Integrative Framework
3
Target Audience of This White Paper
4
Scope of the Proposed Framework
5
Risk in a Broader Context
6
Before Assessment Starts
10
Risk Assessment
14
Generic Challenges for Risk Assessment
18
Risk Perception
21
Conclusions
174
Lessons Learned and Recommendations
175
Listeria in Raw Milk Soft Cheese A Case Study of Risk Governance in the United States Using the IRGC Framework
179
Risk Governance Context
181
PreAssessment
182
Monitoring and Early Warning
185
Institutional PreScreening
186
Risk Appraisal
187

Risk Appraisal
25
Characterising and Evaluating Risks
28
Risk Management
32
Risk Management Strategies
36
Managing Interdependencies
40
Stakeholder Involvement and Participation
43
Risk Communication
48
Organisational Capacity
52
The Role of Political Culture
55
Conclusions
58
Glossary of Terms
60
Critical Reviews
74
A Framework for Risk Governance Revisited
77
The IRGC Framework for Risk Governance
78
Strengths
79
Critique
80
The Need for Adequate Positioning
81
Conclusions
84
Enterprise Risk Management Perspectives on Risk Governance
87
Comments on the IRGC Framework for Risk Governance1 D Warner North
92
Context and Purpose
94
Comments on Strengths and Weaknesses
96
Next Steps and Outreach
98
Concluding Quote
99
White Black and Gray Critical Dialogue with the International Risk Governance Councils Framework for Risk Governance
101
Presuppositional and Scope Issues
102
Defining Risk
103
General Coherence of Framework
104
Uncertainty in Risk Estimation
109
Political Implications and Unintended Consequences
114
Conclusions
116
Synopsis of Critical Comments on the IRGC Risk Governance Framework
119
Purpose of the Framework
120
Scope of the Framework
121
Categorisation and Quality of RiskRelated Knowledge
122
Benefits and Costs
123
Vulnerability and Resilience
124
PreAssessment
125
Tolerability and Acceptability Judgement
126
Stakeholder Involvement and Sharing Knowledge
127
Risk Communication
128
Revisiting and Testing
129
Case Study Applications
131
Risk Governance of Genetically Modified Crops European and American Perspectives
132
Analysis of Risk Governance of GM Crops in Accordance with the IRGC Framework
134
Risk Governance Context
135
Risk Preassessment Framing New Technology
136
Risk Appraisal
138
Risk Characterisation and Evaluation
142
Risk Management
144
Risk Communication and Stakeholder Participation
145
Conclusions and Recommendations
146
Experience in Applying the IRGC Framework to the Development of GM Crops
147
Further Development of the IRGC Framework
148
Risk Governance of Innovative Technologies
151
Chapter 8 NatureBased Tourism
155
Analysis of Risk Governance for NatureBased Tourism
158
Risk Governance Context
159
Risk PreAssessment
162
Risk Appraisal
163
Characterisation of Risks as Simple Complex Uncertain or Ambiguous
167
Risk Management
168
Risk Communication
172
Stakeholder Participation
173
Concern Assessment
196
Tolerability Acceptability Judgement
200
Risk Evaluation
205
Decision Making
209
Implementation
210
Risk Communication
212
Conclusions
215
Nagara River Estuary Barrage Conflict
221
The Nagara River Estuary Barrage Conflict
222
Changes in Issues and Key Stakeholders
223
Retrospective Analysis Using the IRGC Framework
225
Risk Appraisal
226
Tolerability and Acceptability Judgement
227
Discussion and Conclusions
228
Acrylamide Risk Governance in Germany
231
Acrylamide History and Toxicity
232
Events in Sweden up to 24 April 2002
234
International Response to the Press Conference
237
Evaluation of the Events in Sweden
240
Relevance for Risk Governance
243
The Institutional Structures of Consumer Health Protection in Germany
244
Risk Governance in the Acrylamide Case in Germany
247
PreAssessment
248
Risk Appraisal
251
The Beginning of the German Acrylamide Case
253
Tolerability and Acceptability Judgement
259
Risk Management
261
Summary and Conclusion
265
Index of Abbreviations and Translated Names
267
Energy Security for the Baltic Region
275
Uncertainty Complexity and Ambiguity
276
Baltic Energy Security IRGCs Four Phases of Risk Analysis and Management
281
Summary
283
Quotations from Leaders and Leading News Media Writers on Energy Security with Respect to the Use of Russian Natural Gas in Europe 2006
284
Assessing Risks in LongTerm Planning Probabilistic Scenario Analysis with Generalised Equilibrium Energy Models
287
Nanotechnology Risk Governance
300
Promises of Nanotechnology
303
An Application of the IRGC Risk Governance Framework PreAssessment Categorisation of Nanotechnology into Two Frames of Reference
304
Deficits in Nanotechnology Risk Governance Today
306
Risk Appraisal for Nanotechnology
308
Risk Management Strategies for Frame 1 and Frame 2
311
Risk Management Strategies for Stakeholder Participation
314
Risk Management Strategies for Risk Communication
316
Risk Governance Strategies and the Potential Future Role for International Bodies
319
Feedback from an International Conference
321
Risk Management Recommendations
322
Implementation of the Recommendations from the Framework
323
NonFirstWorldPerspective
324
Concluding Remarks
325
Lessons Learned
328
Lessons Learned A ReAssessment of the IRGC Framework on Risk Governance
329
Defining Different Concepts and Levels
334
Examining the Purpose and Scope of the IRGC Risk Governance Framework
336
Scope
338
Distinctions between Complexity Uncertainty and Ambiguity
342
The Structure and Content of the Overall Risk Governance Framework
347
Risk Appraisal
350
The Need for a Simpler Risk Evaluation
352
Risk Management
354
Risk Communication
355
Stakeholder Involvement and Public Participation
356
The Importance of Context
359
Conclusions
361
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About the author (2008)

Ortwin Renn is Professor and Chair of Environmental Sociology and Technology Assessment at Stuttgart University, Germany. He directs the Stuttgart Research Center for Risk and Innovation at Stuttgart University and the non-profit company DIALOGIK, a research institute for the investigation of communication and participation processes in environmental policy making. Renn is primarily interested in risk governance, political participation and technology assessment. He has published more than 30 books and 250 articles, most prominently the monograph Risk Governance (2008).