Grading Student Writing

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IAP, 2009 - Education - 340 pages
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While the grading of student writing is of central concern to composition studies and to teaching, the process has not been clearly defined. The act of assigning a grade raises such issues as how teachers read student writing, whether form and content are of equal concern, what the purpose of grading is, and whether grading should take place at all. The vagueness of grading points to the complexity of the topic, which encompasses such matters as student peer review, psychometrics, student-teacher conferences, portfolios, collaborative learning, and English-as-a-Second-Language. Because of the centrality of grading and its complexity, the topic has generated a large body of literature. This reference book is a helpful guide to the vast and sometimes bewildering body of research on the grading of student writing. The volume includes entries for more than 1300 books and articles on grading published between 1970 and 1996. Each entry includes an annotation that summarizes the work and its importance. The entries are grouped in several broad chapters, with most chapters containing numerous subsections. Thus the book covers such topics as holistic grading, portfolio assessment, collaborative approaches to assessment, essay tests, creative writing, whole language, standardized tests, and student progress. The entries are arranged alphabetically within each subsection, and the author and subject indexes allow the user to access information quickly.
 

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Contents

Bibliographies
1
Sources with Multiple Entries
5
HistoryPhilosophyTheory
9
Methods of Classroom Assessment of Writing
19
Cassettes
20
Checklists
23
Checkmark Grading
26
Computers and Writing Assessment
28
StandardizedLargeScale Testing of ESL Writing
167
Writing Quality
169
Other Issues
170
Essay TestsEssay Writing
173
Genres
177
Journals
178
Letters
179
Handwriting and Writing Assessment
182

Conferences
31
Contracts
37
Copyediting versus Grading
39
External Evaluators
40
Holistic Evaluation of Classroom Writing
41
NonGraded Writing
42
PassNoPass System
44
Peer Evaluation
45
Portfolios
55
Praiseworthy Grading
80
Reading and Commenting on Students Writing
81
Student SelfAssessments
114
TeamCollaborative Grading
119
Other Methods
123
Classroom Assessment Issues
139
Bias
143
Error
147
EnglishasSecondLanguage ESL Writing
152
Classroom Assessment Methods
153
Reading and Commenting on Students Writing
157
Error
160
Placement Testing
161
Prompts
162
Reliability of Raters
164
Scoring Methods
166
Models of Classroom Writing Assessment
185
Modes of Writing
186
PhilosophyTheory of Classroom Writing Assessment
188
Reliability and Validity
198
Student Anxiety
204
Writing Assignments
206
Other Issues
211
StandardizedLargeScale Testing of Writing
221
DirectIndirect Testing of Writing
222
LargeScale Testing Philosophies
224
Prompts
226
Reliability of Raters
232
RubricsScoring Procedures
233
International
252
National
256
StateLocal
259
StandardizedLargeScale Testing by Types
263
Other Placement Tests
265
Portfolios
272
Writing ApprehensionDisability
282
Other Issues
283
Author Index
289
Subject Index
305
Copyright

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About the author (2009)

BRUCE W. SPECK is the Vice President for Academic Affairs and Professor of English at Austin Peay State University.

Carmel Greenwood, born in Australia, visited Hong Kong for a two-week holiday and stayed for thirty years. She has studied, practised and taught metaphysics for many years in the Far East, San Francisco and London, where she now lives.

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