Grasshoppers and Grassland Health: Managing Grasshopper Outbreaks without Risking Environmental Disaster
Jeffrey Lockwood, Alexandre Latchininsky, Michael G. Sergeev
Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 30, 2000 - Science - 221 pages
Acridids (grasshoppers and locusts) can range from being rare curiosities to abundant menaces. Some are threatened with extinction and become subjects of intensive conservation efforts, while others are devastating pests and become the objects of massive control programmes. Even within a species, there are times when the animal is so abundant that its crushed masses cause the wheels of trains to skid (the Rocky Mountain grasshopper, Melanoplus spretus Walsh in western North America in the 1860s and I 870s), while at other times the animal is alarmingly scarce (the Rocky Mountain grasshopper went extinct in the early 1900s). Why are there these extremes in one insect family, and even in a single species? The NATO workshop examined this paradox and its implications for Environmental Security, which must address both the elements of land use (agricultural production and pest management) and conservation of biodiversity. The reconciliation of these objectives clearly demands a critical assessment of current knowledge and policies, identification of future research, and close working relationships among scientists. Insects can present two clear faces, as well as the intervening gradation. These extremes require us to respond in two ways: conservation of scarce species and suppression of abundant (harmful) species. But perhaps most important, these opposite poles also provide the opportunity for an exchange of information and insight.
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abundance acridid acridid outbreaks acridology adults agricultural Amu Darya Amu Darya delta application Aral Sea Aral Sea basin areas arthropods barrier treatment biodiversity biological control biological efficacy biomass Brown locust Calliptamus italicus cereal chemical chlorpyrifos crops cultivars damage decreased Dimilin Dimilin OF-6 distribution ecological economic eggs Entomology environmental field fipronil forage grasses grasshopper consumption grasshopper control grasshopper densities grasshopper outbreaks grasshopper species Grassland Health grazing habitats harm hatching herbivores host-plant impact increased infested insect insecticides insects/m2 instar Italian Locust Joern Kazakhstan landscape Lecoq litter locusts and grasshoppers Mato Grosso Melanoplus methods micropopulations Migratory Locust mortality natural non-target Novosibirsk State University Oecologia Olfert Orthoptera patches plant biomass Plant Protection plots population dynamics potential Prairie predation problem programmes pyrethroids rangeland rangeland grasshoppers reduced region Rhammatocerus schistocercoides risk Russian sanguinipes Slow Cycle soil sprayer steppe strategies swarms Syr Darya Thomisidae transect Uvarov wheat