Grassland Invertebrates: Ecology, influence on soil fertility and effects on plant growth

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 30, 1993 - Science - 438 pages
Grasslands comprise more than a quarter of the Earth's land surface. In addition to supporting a wide range of vertebrates such as domestic livestock and a variety of games species, grassland is the natural habitat for a wide range of invertebrate species, and this book considers those which occur in grassland and their impact on soil fertility and herbage growth. It describes grassland as a habitat for invertebrates, the groups which occur there and their abudance. An extensive literature on grassland invertebrates scattered through numerous scientific journals and reports is drawn on in an attempt to develop an overview.
In the opening chapter the major grassland types are considered and the features which influence the distribution and abudance of the invertebrates which inhabit them are discussed. Next the major taxonomic groups are reviewed in turn, with a brief account of their biology and ecology and of their ecosystem role. Some general features of grassland invertebrate communities are then described and teh factors which influence th epopulation densities of their constituent species are considered. Particular attentionm is given to the ways in which populations are influenced by management practices. The final and largest chapterdeals with the various ways in which invertebrates influence important grassland processes through ingestion of organic matter, interaction with injurious species is considered, with particular emphasis on the potential for achieving this through manipulating grassland management practices.
 

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Contents

The grassland habitat
1
12 DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR GRASSLAND TYPES
3
13 THE FAUNA OF DIFFERENT GRASSLAND TYPES
8
14 BOTANICAL COMPOSITION AND GROWTH PATTERNS
9
15 SWARD STRUCTURE
11
16 INFLUENCE OF WEATHER AND CLIMATE ON INVERTEBRATES
12
17 SOIL MOISTURE
19
18 MICROCLIMATE AND SHELTER
21
32 TROPHIC STRUCTURE AND ENERGY FLOW
126
33 SPECIES RICHNESS DOMINANCE AND DIVERSITY
131
34 FACTORS INFLUENCING COMMUNITY STRUCTURE
134
35 SUCCESSIONAL CHANGES IN THE COMMUNITY
142
36 COMMUNITY STABILITY
154
37 COEVOLUTION
155
38 DEFINING AND COMPARING COMMUNITIES
156
39 SUMMARY
165

19 SOIL PROPERTIES
24
110 SUMMARY
30
The composition of the invertebrate fauna
33
21 PROTOZOA
34
22 NEMATODA
36
23 OLIGOCHAETA ENCHYTRAEIDAE
43
24 OLIGOCHAETA EARTHWORMS
45
25 MOLLUSCA
55
26 ISOPODA
57
27 MYRIAPODA
60
28 ARACHNIDA
64
29 COLLEMBOLA
76
210 OTHER APTERYGOTA
83
212 ORTHOPTERA
88
213 THYSANOPTERA
93
214 HEMIPTERA
95
215 COLEOPTERA
102
216 DIPTERA
107
217 HYMENOPTERA
111
218 LEPIDOPTERA
118
219 OTHER INSECTS
119
220 SUMMARY
120
The grassland invertebrate community
125
Factors affecting the abundance and composition of the grassland fauna
167
42 NATURAL ENEMIES
179
43 DISEASE
184
44 COMPETITION
185
45 NATURAL CONTROL OF POPULATIONS
186
46 SUMMARY
195
Influence of management on the grassland fauna
199
52 GRAZING
201
53 MOWING
210
54 FERTILIZERS
217
55 FIRE
229
56 GRASSLAND RECLAMATION AND IMPROVEMENT
230
57 PESTICIDES AND CHEMICAL POLLUTANTS
243
58 SUMMARY
253
Effects of grassland invertebrates on soil fertility and plant growth
255
63 INFLUENCE ON DECOMPOSITION AND MINERALIZATION
272
64 INFLUENCE ON SOIL PROPERTIES
290
65 EFFECTS OF HERBIVORES ON GRASSLAND PRODUCTIVITY
303
66 PEST MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN GRASSLAND
317
67 CONCLUSIONS
341
References
345
Index
403
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