Grassland dynamics: an ecosystem simulation model
Flexible and fast, computer simulations now play an important role in the study of ecology. This book gives a complete account of one such simulation, the Hurley Pasture Model, a dynamic, deterministic, mechanistic model for grassland, developed by the author and his colleagues over the last twenty years. The book presents the rationale and theoretical elements of this type of model, followed by an overview of the Hurley grassland simulator and the derivation and construction of its plant, animal, soil and litter, water, and environment and management components. The model is then evaluated by a series of long- and short-term dynamic simulations and steady state responses, which demonstrate how predictions can be made about the effects of, for example, climate change or particular regimes of fertilizer application, grazing or cutting. This book will be of great value to grassland agronomists and modelers, crop physiologists and plant ecologists, and to students of ecology as a case study of a plant ecosystem model. It will also be of interest to other ecologists and environmental scientists pursuing computer modeling and its applications.
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Overview of the Pasture Model
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ACSL air temperature ambient Animal intake annual primary production assumed calculated canopy photosynthesis CO2 concentration day-1 kg day1 decreases denitrification depends differential equations diurnal dry matter ecosystem model evapotranspiration fertilizer application flux fraction given in Eqns grassland harvesting initial values input kg N ha-1 kg N m-2 kg structural DM kg substrate kg water lamina leaching leaf area index lignin litter pools litter submodel m-2 day maximum mineral N pools Namm NAPP Nitrification Nmin parameters photosynthetically active radiation plant submodel Pmax radiation rainfall rate constant relative water content respiration response rrr2 seasonal Section senescence sheep ha-1 shoot and root shoot relative water shoot:root ratio simulation soil and litter soil litter soil mineral soil organic matter soil temperatures soil water specific growth rate stabilized steady-state stocking density stomatal conductance structural dry mass surface litter Table Thornley tissue unprotected uptake variables vpm C02 water potential water stress water submodel