Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak and Micro: Saas-Fee Advanced Course 33

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Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 30, 2006 - Science - 552 pages
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The observation, in 1919 by A.S. Eddington and collaborators, of the gra- tational de?ection of light by the Sun proved one of the many predictions of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity: The Sun was the ?rst example of a gravitational lens. In 1936, Albert Einstein published an article in which he suggested - ing stars as gravitational lenses. A year later, Fritz Zwicky pointed out that galaxies would act as lenses much more likely than stars, and also gave a list of possible applications, as a means to determine the dark matter content of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. It was only in 1979 that the ?rst example of an extragalactic gravitational lens was provided by the observation of the distant quasar QSO 0957+0561, by D. Walsh, R.F. Carswell, and R.J. Weymann. A few years later, the ?rst lens showing images in the form of arcs was detected. The theory, observations, and applications of gravitational lensing cons- tute one of the most rapidly growing branches of astrophysics. The gravi- tional de?ection of light generated by mass concentrations along a light path producesmagni?cation,multiplicity,anddistortionofimages,anddelaysp- ton propagation from one line of sight relative to another. The huge amount of scienti?c work produced over the last decade on gravitational lensing has clearly revealed its already substantial and wide impact, and its potential for future astrophysical applications.
 

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Contents

Introduction to Gravitational Lensing and Cosmology
1
Gravitational Lens Theory
18
Simple Lens Models
31
The Homogeneous Universe
44
Basics of Lensing Statistics
54
The Cosmological Standard Model
61
Final Remarks
83
Strong Gravitational Lensing
90
Weak Gravitational Lensing
269
Observational Issues and Challenges
281
Introduction and Strong Lensing
298
Mass Reconstructions from Weak Lensing
315
Cosmic Shear Lensing by the LSS
355
Results
382
The Mass of and Associated with Galaxies
404
Additional Issues in Cosmic Shear
430

BasicPrinciples
97
The Mass Distributions of Galaxies
121
Time Delays
163
Gravitational Lens Statistics
182
What Happened to the Cluster Lenses?
210
The Role of Substructure
221
The Optical Properties of Lens Galaxies
232
Extended Sources and Quasar Host Galaxies
243
Does Strong Lensing Have a Future?
255
Concluding Remarks
439
Gravitational Microlensing
453
Binary Lenses
461
Ideas Surveys and Results
475
Microlensing Surveys in Search of Extrasolar Planets
486
Astrometric Microlensing
516
References
536
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About the author (2006)

Peter Schneider is a Professor in the Mathematical Institute at the University of M nster.

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