Green Products by Design: Choices for a Cleaner Environment
Product design is an important environmental focal point, with design decisions directly and indirectly determining levels of resource use and the composition of waste streams. This report, addresses the importance of product design as a tool for reducing wastes and managing materials. It provides a conceptual overview of how designers might integrate environmental concerns with traditional design objectives, and how policymakers can best take advantage of such opportunities. Although the concept of "green" design is gathering momentum, technical, behavioral, and economic barriers need to be addressed. Illustrated.
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approach attributes of products auto automakers automobile design batteries better materials management changes Clean Air Act companies components composting consumers costs countries cycle design process disposal eco-labeling economic emissions energy and materials engineering environment environmental attributes environmental impacts environmental policy Environmental Protection Agency example Federal footnote green design green product design guidelines heavy metals incentives incineration industrial waste inputs Institute inventory labeling landfills LCAs life-cycle manufacturers ment municipal solid waste non-hazardous Nordic countries Office of Technology options packaging waste paradigm percent pesticides plastics Pollution Prevention problem product design programs RCRA recovered materials recycled content recycling reduce regulations requirements Resource reuse risks standards strategy suppliers take-back taxes Technology Assessment tion toxic chemicals toxic materials toxics use reduction tradeoffs U.S. Congress U.S. Government Printing United vehicle virgin materials volatile organic compounds Washington Waste Law waste management waste prevention waste streams
Page iv - NOTE: OTA appreciates and is grateful for the valuable assistance and thoughtful critiques provided by the advisory panel members. The panel does not, however, necessarily approve, disapprove, or endorse this report. OTA assumes full responsibility for the report and the accuracy of its contents.
Page 79 - EPA laws such as the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) have the clear potential in certain circumstances to ban substances that are of particular danger.
Page 101 - Before the Subcommittee on Transportation and Hazardous Materials of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, 101st Cong., July 27, 1989, pp.
Page 36 - 80s and '90s. The US Congress passed laws such as the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to deal with end-of-pipe emissions from discrete point sources.
Page 6 - Some, such as the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, do so indirectly, by raising industry's costs of releasing wastes to the air, water, and land.
Page 37 - green design' to mean something qualitatively different: a design process in which environmental attributes are treated as design objectives, rather than as constraints.
Page 17 - Eliminate special tax treatment for extraction of virgin materials, and subsidies for agriculture. Tax the production of virgin materials. Tax industrial emissions, effluents, and hazardous wastes. Establish tradable emissions permits. Tax the carbon content of fuels. Establish tradable recycling credits. Tax the use of virgin toxic materials. Create tax credits for use of recycled materials. Establish a grant fund for clean technology research. Establish weight/volume-based waste disposal fees....
Page 17 - Regulate mining, oil, and gas nonhazardous solid wastes under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Establish depletion quotas on extraction and import of virgin materials. Tighten regulations under Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and RCRA. Regulate nonhazardous industrial waste under RCRA. Mandate disclosure of toxic materials use. Raise Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards for automobiles. Mandate recycled content in products. Mandate manufacturer take-back and recycling of products....