Grounds for Respect: Particularism, Universalism, and Communal Accountability
In recent years traditional foundations of respect for others have been challenged on the basis that universal grounds — the assumption that we share a common humanity — have resulted in the exclusion of particular others from full moral consideration or respect. This current questioning of the concept of a common humanity is of enormous significance, in that universalism has been one of the central assumptions of modern western philosophy and a foundational key to its moral and political theory. This book attempts to address the question of just what grounds are needed in order to justify respect for others, and in addressing this question raises issues of fundamental importance; such as, what exactly does it mean to be human? On what basis can we claim that all humans are equal? Are there differences between animals and humans, and are these differences of moral significance — that is, should animals be accorded the same respect as humans? The author not only critically assesses past and current arguments for and against a common humanity, but also provides a distinctively new conceptualization of what it might mean to be human — and why being human is indeed morally significant.
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Aboriginal actually animals argued arguments Aristotle assumption autonomy Barcham Bennelong Bentham Butler Cambridge capability approach chapter claims conception of human Critical Humanism critique culture Cyborg Manifesto Darwall Darwall’s deﬁned deﬁnition Derrida difference difﬁcult discussion Enlightenment equal moral consideration ethics exclusion fact ﬁrst Foucault Frontiers Gender grounds Haraway Haraway’s Heidegger human communities human dignity Human Rights humanist Hume Hume’s identity Indigenous Australians individual inﬂuenced insists Judith Butler justice justiﬁcation Kant Kant’s Kittay Korsgaard Levinas Lyotard marginalized Martha Nussbaum metaphysical Michel Foucault moral community Moreover nature non-rational humans Noonan Nussbaum one’s ontology oppressed particular person personhood Peter Singer philosophy political possibility posthumanism posthumanist Postmodern practice rational reciprocal accountability recognition reﬂect regard relations scholars scientiﬁc Second-Person Second-Person Standpoint seen self-determination sexual signiﬁcance simply Singer slaves social contract society Sources of Normativity speciﬁcally standard of value suggests theory tion trans ultimately Undoing Gender University Press utilitarian Western women worth