## Guide to the Design of Thrust Blocks for Buried Pressure PipelinesThis report presents a step-by-step design guide for thrust blocks to restrain the forces generated by changes in direction of fluid flow in jointed buried pressure pipeline networks. It provides a background knowledge to the underlying principles and theory involved with designing thrust blocks for buried pipelines. The guidance given in this report is principally for thrusts up to 1000kN, limiting both the pressure range and pipe diameters and, more importantly, the thrust block sizes. |

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### Contents

List of figures | 7 |

Notation | 13 |

Figures | 16 |

Formulae for determining components of the hydraulic thrust | 23 |

Displacement of a thrust block under load | 30 |

Elements for calculating ultimate bearing resistance Qb | 36 |

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS | 40 |

Typical thrust block details for vertical bends downturns | 42 |

EXAMPLES | 53 |

Pipeline for Example 2 | 58 |

References | 65 |

Field identification of soils and rocks | 73 |

Figure A3 1 Typical grading curves for soils | 76 |

Figure A3 9 Compression and swelling of soil | 83 |

Derivation of formula for ground resistance | 91 |

Protection for fully enclosed uPVC pipes | 48 |

### Common terms and phrases

appropriate design parameters appropriate formulae Atterberg limits backfill base shear bearing capacity behaviour Blank ends block at location BLOCK SIZE cemented sand chamber clay soils Compression and swelling concrete design is satisfactory displacement drained conditions drained soils earth pressure effective stress engineering equation excavation excess pore pressures factor of safety flanged flow formulae in Figure friction angle given in Table grained granular soils ground conditions ground resistance hydraulic illustrated in Figure information given joints kN Step liquid limit liquidity index Mohr's circles Normal stress obtained from Table peak pipe pipeline plane poor ground relative density restrained sample sands and gravels Section 2.7 shear stress silt soil mechanics soils and rocks Step 12 stress-strain curve take a value tapers test pressure thrust block thrust forces thrust reduction factor thrust wall total stress trench ultimate bearing ultimate resistance undrained loading unit weight UPTURN BENDS valve water content water table