Habit and Intelligence: A Series of Essays on the Laws of Life and Mind

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Macmillan and Company, 1879 - Biology - 583 pages
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This book is incredible and answers many questions I have had for many years; especially the connection between ganglions and conciousness. I feel that this text validates suspicians I have had all along about conciousness in worms, mollucs, insects, etc that possess ganglion. Granted this conciousness may not be as sophistocated as ours but concious none the less.. Hmmmm... :)
Brent A. Jensen
 

Contents

Development and Repair
53
Morphological Definiteness
59
The Action is not Reciprocal
65
Dynamics the Basis of Physical Science
69
Summary
75
Reflex Action or Motion in Response to a Stimulus
81
CHAPTER IX
87
Apparent cases of Habit in the Inorganic World
89
Reversion
95
Adaptation how Effected Active and Passive Habits
103
32
104
Purpose of Sexual Distinction
109
Why do Organs Grow with Exercise? Herbert Spencers Theory Woody
111
Transitional Forms are often still in Existence but mostly Lost
117
Changes of Circumstances in Geological Time will Promote Organic Change
123
THE FACTS OF VARIATION
127
Reversion
133
Probable Cause of Irregularity in Flowers
140
The Mutual Infertility of unlike Species perhaps depends on Lapse of Time
144
Summary
150
Bodvariation in an Appletree
156
Effects of Selection Divergence and Convergence of character
161
38
162
Monstrous Variations are probably always Sudden but not the converse
167
Union of homologous parts
173
CHAPTER XII
182
Natural Selection acts less efficiently than Artificial
188
Objection to Darwinism that the most Variable Groups are not the most
194
The Divisions of Classification are generally Dichotomous
200
41
202
Placental Classification of Mammalia
208
Probable Character of the First Parrots
214
Skeieton of Lamprey Petromyzon
220
Three Kinds of Characters
224
What Characters are most valuable for Classification
230
A Classification of Fishes by their Covering would not be natural
236
Darwins Law and Delboeufs Law
242
Definite changes which are not adaptive
244
Entozoa
246
Wallace on Local Resemblances among Butterflies
252
Parallel Case among Animals
258
Seasonal Coloration
264
218
275
CHAPTER XVII
279
Syncoryne eximia
327
Planula development of Cordylophora lacustris
333
Darwin and Spencer ascribe all Organic Characters to Selfadaptation
339
63
353
Transformation of fins into legs with toes Amphiuma Difficulty
354
THE ORIGIN OF
361
Mans brain is a structure developed in anticipation of function
367
Skeleton of Lamprey Petromyzon
374
Improvements lost by interbreeding with unimproved individuals
380
Difficulty about the Combination of Variations
385
CHAPTER XXI
391
249
393
Independent tendencies to Variation and Progress
397
Intelligence is coextensive with life but most discernible in the highest
402
Gromia with extended pseudopodia
408
Instincts of Spermatozoa and PlanulŠ
419
CONSCIOUSNESS
426
Memory is Habit acting within Consciousness
432
The Organism is constructed out of the Food by the organizing power
437
CHAPTER XXVII
444
The idea of Space cannot be derived from that of Time
450
Substance identified with Agency
456
Exceptions The General Law is maintained by Natural Selection
462
Analogy between Organic and Mental Development
469
Abstraction Instance in Arithmetic
475
419
480
Intelligence shown in the power of Belief
482
Logical element in Perception
488
Suggested reason of the fact
493
Diagram of the mutual relations of the principal encephalic
499
430
505
Physical distinction between Consciousness and Memory
506
Suspension of the power of one nerve to excite a current in another
514
255
520
CHAPTER XXXII
521
195
522
461
527
Reply to the commonsense objection to Automatism
528
Greatness of the paradox
532
Variability of Language both in the forms of Words and in their meanings
548
Constant change of Material PAGE
571
Insufficiency of Darwins theory
577
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Page 247 - We come to a still more extraordinary part of the imitation, for we find representations of leaves in every stage of decay, variously blotched, and mildewed, and pierced with holes, and in many cases irregularly covered with powdery black dots, gathered into patches and spots, so closely resembling the various kinds of minute fungi that grow on dead leaves, that it is impossible to avoid thinking at first sight that the butterflies themselves have been attacked by real fungi.
Page 43 - No theory of evolution can be formed to account for the similarity of molecules, for evolution necessarily implies continuous change, and the molecule is incapable of growth or decay, of generation or destruction. None of the processes of nature, since the time when nature began, have produced the slightest difference in the properties of any molecule. We are therefore unable to ascribe either the existence of the molecules or any of their properties to the operation of any of the causes which we...
Page 43 - But in the heavens we discover by their light, and by their light alone, stars so distant from each other that no material thing can ever have passed from one to another, and yet this light, which is to us the sole evidence of the existence of these distant worlds, tells us also that each of them is built up of molecules of the same kinds as those which we find on earth.
Page 239 - There can also be little doubt that the tendency to vary in the same manner has often been so strong that all the individuals of the same species have been similarly modified without the aid of any form of selection.
Page 347 - And assuredly, there is no mark of degradation about any part of its structure. It is, in fact, a fair average human skull, which might have belonged to a philosopher, or might have contained the thoughtless brains of a savage.
Page 380 - have been purely bred from the original stock of Mr. Bakewell for upwards of fifty years. There is not a suspicion existing in the mind of any one at all acquainted with the subject, that the owner of either of them has deviated in any one instance from the pure blood of Mr. Bakewell's flock, and yet the differences between the sheep possessed by these two gentlemen is so great that they have the appearance of being quite different varieties.
Page 40 - ... be able to see our way as clearly from the constituents of water to the properties of water as we are now able to deduce the operations of a watch from the form of its parts and the manner in which they are put together. Is the case in any way changed when carbonic acid, water, and...
Page 514 - And he, shall he, Man, her last work, who seem'd so fair, Such splendid purpose in his eyes, Who roll'd the psalm to wintry skies, Who built him fanes of fruitless prayer, Who trusted God was love indeed And love Creation's final law — Tho...
Page 39 - Fahrenheit, and far below that temperature, oxygen and hydrogen are elastic gaseous bodies, whose particles tend to rush away from one another with great force. Water, at the same temperature, is a strong though brittle solid whose particles tend to cohere into definite geometrical shapes, and sometimes build up frosty imitations of the most complex forms of vegetable foliage.
Page 556 - ... that do the same in the body natural ; the wealth and riches of all the particular members, are the strength ; salus populi, the people's safety, its business ; counsellors, by whom all things needful for it to know are suggested unto it, are the memory; equity, and laws, an artificial reason and will; concord, health; sedition, sickness; and civil war, death.

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