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Nest Success Rates
Management of Predators and Nesting Cover
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1988 nesting seasons availability average black ducks Blue-winged teal hens blue-winged teal nests calculated D.H. Johnson Dabbling Duck Nests dense cover distance Duebbert EARLY evaluate gadwall grassland cover types grassland nests grassland types Greenwood Hen success rates hens nested Klett Livezey mallard and blue-winged Mallard BW Teal mallard hens mallard nesting success naturally seeded grasslands nest fate nest searches nest success rates nest-site nesting attempts nests found nests from water nests hatched nests in western nests/ha non-grassland cover types North Dakota Northeast northern pintail Northern shoveler NSRs planted grasslands population prairie pothole region predator reduction production quality nesting cover radio-tagged rates for mallards reverted cropland rights-of-way seasons in western species study area success of ducks Successful mallard nests successful nests switchgrass Table teal in western teal nest sites types in western USFWS Vegetation height-density measurements water and edge waterfowl nesting seasons western New York wetlands Wildl York during 1987 York grasslands