Hacksilber to coinage: new insights into the monetary history of the Near East and Greece
Miriam S. Balmuth, American Numismatic Society, Archaeological Institute of America. General Meeting
American Numismatic Society, 2001 - History - 134 pages
Ancient Near Eastern hoards of randomly shaped silver, generically called Hacksilber, have come increasingly to be interpreted as hoards of pre-coinage currency. These papers present new insights into the circulation and use of these hoards, drawing on new scientific and documentary analyses. The authors explore the important question of how roughly hacked material gradually evolved into pre-weighed and stamped coinage; the foundation of all modern monetary systems. Contents: The silver hoard from Tel Dor (Ephraim Stern); The Tel Mique-Ekron silver hoards: The Assyrian and Phoenician connections (Seymour Gitin and Amir Golani); The Silver Trail: response to the papers of Ephraim Stern and Seymour Gitlin (William G Dever); The impact on the natural sciences of Hacksilber and early silver coinage (Zofia A Stos-Gale); The conceptual prehistory of money and its impact on the Greek economy (David M Schaps); Observations on monetary instruments in pre-coinage Greece (John H Kroll); Analyzing and interpreting the metallurgy of early electrum coins (Paul T Keyser and David D Clark); Remarks on the value and standards of early electrum coins (Robert Wallace).
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Gitin Seymour and Golani Amir
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3rd millennium bce 7th century bce activation analysis Aegean Aiginetan Analytical error 0.1 ancient Archaeology Archaic Greece Ashkelon Assyrian Babylonian Balmuth Bodenstedt Bronze Age bullion Chalkidiki coinage copper Courbin cupellation currency deposits drachms early electrum coins East economic Egyptian Ekron evidence Excavations Gale Galena Gitin gold content Greek coins Hacksilber ingot inscription Iran Iron Age iron spits isotope fingerprints Israel Jerusalem Kraay Kroll Lavrion laws lead isotope analyses lead isotope compositions lead isotope ratios lead/silver Litharge Lydian measured Melville Jones 1993 Mesopotamia metal millennium bce Miqne Miqne-Ekron monetary Monte Romero Lead Nakhlak native electrum Neo-Assyrian Numismatic obols payment Pheidon Philistine Phoenician Phokaia refined Rio Tinto Romero Lead piece samples scarabs Selinus Selinus Hoard Seymour Gitin Shechem Shechem Hoard shekel silver coins silver hoard silver jewelry Siphnos Solon Solonian stater Stern Stos-Gale Studies trade unrefined electrum Wallace weight system