Haematology Practice In Distressed Economy
Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2010 in the subject Medicine - Public Health, , language: English, abstract: In most countries, there are likely to be some laboratories with limited resources, but in economic distressed countries, there are few laboratories with highly trained technologists and sophisticated equipment. In these countries therefore, i t is not unusual for laboratory tests to be carried out by nurses and ordelies in outpatient consulting rooms, corridors and in rural health centres. Understaffing,poor morale, inadequate equipment and erratic supplies of reagents are chronic problems in laboratories in poorer countries and these factors have a major impact on the range and quality of services that can be offered. Many smaller laboratories are multifunctional, performing Haematology, Parasitology, Clinical chemistry and Bacteriology tests. A blood transfusion service is usually available at the larger institutions and unless there is a national blood service, laboratory staff will be responsible for donor selection, blood collection and issuing of blood. If there is no organisation of public health laboratories, routine laboratories will be required to provide high quality health surveillance data for epidemiological and public health monitoring. In a number of economically distressed countries, the difficulties are compounded by the fact that health services are becoming overwhelmed by expanding epidemics of HIV/AIDS(Human immunodeficiency vírus/Acquired immune deficiency syndrome), tuberculosis and malária. Diagnosis and monitoring of these diseases require a healthy,robust and reliable laboratory service. Thus malária diagnosis must be confirmed by a laboratory test because other disorders can masquerade clinically as malária. The diagnosis of tuberculosis may require boné marrow aspiration and culture and trephine biospy examination, especially in patients who are also HIV positive because in these cases sputum tests for acid fast organisms are frequently negative. Monitoring of HIV progression to AIDS and effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy requires Haemoglobin estimation, CD4-poistive lymphocyte counts and plasma viral load estimation. The main purpose of this topic-(Haematology practice in distressed economy) is to point towards an effective haematology service that can be provided despite serious limitations.
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200 Red blood accuracy accurate anaemia anticoagulant área Automated haematology blood cell count blood films blood sample blood spots CD4+ centrifugation cost counting chambers Coverslips cuvettes DCIP DHT HAEMOGLOBINOMETER DIAGNOSTIC RELIABILITY DIAGNOSTIC SENSITIVITY diluted direct read-out machine disease distressed economic countries district hospital laboratory economic distressed countries ensure errors ESSENTIAL HAEMATOLOGY TESTS external quality assessment facilities Haematology equipment Haemoglobin colour scale Haemoglobin estimation Hb estimation health centres HEMOCUE BLOOD HIV/AIDS INTERNAL QUALITY CONTROL Journal laboratory managers laboratory staff Lymphocyte counts maintenance malária MANUAL CELL COUNTS microscope mixed monitoring Neubauer or improved number of tests number of TRUE OSMOTIC FRAGILITY PACKED CELL VOLUME peripheral pipette platelet count problems red blood cells red cells requires rural laboratory Samples containing haemoglobin screening test small squares technical quality technologist test method thalassaemia transfusion tropical medicine TRUE POSITIVES(TP tuberculosis viral load estimation white blood cell white cells World Health Organisation