Haematology Practice in Distressed Economy
GRIN Verlag, 2011 - 40 pages
Research paper from the year 2010 in the subject Medicine - Public Health, language: English, abstract: In most countries, there are likely to be some laboratories with limited resources, but in economic distressed countries, there are few laboratories with highly trained technologists and sophisticated equipment. In these countries therefore, i t is not unusual for laboratory tests to be carried out by nurses and ordelies in outpatient consulting rooms, corridors and in rural health centres. Understaffing, poor morale, inadequate equipment and erratic supplies of reagents are chronic problems in laboratories in poorer countries and these factors have a major impact on the range and quality of services that can be offered. Many smaller laboratories are multifunctional, performing Haematology, Parasitology, Clinical chemistry and Bacteriology tests. A blood transfusion service is usually available at the larger institutions and unless there is a national blood service, laboratory staff will be responsible for donor selection, blood collection and issuing of blood. If there is no organisation of public health laboratories, routine laboratories will be required to provide high quality health surveillance data for epidemiological and public health monitoring. In a number of economically distressed countries, the difficulties are compounded by the fact that health services are becoming overwhelmed by expanding epidemics of HIV/AIDS(Human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired immune deficiency syndrome), tuberculosis and malaria. Diagnosis and monitoring of these diseases require a healthy, robust and reliable laboratory service. Thus malaria diagnosis must be confirmed by a laboratory test because other disorders can masquerade clinically as malaria. The diagnosis of tuberculosis may require bone marrow aspiration and culture and trephine biospy examination, especially in patients who are also HIV positive because in these cases sputum tests for acid fast organisms are freq"
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200 Red blood accuracy accurate anaemia anticoagulant área Bacteriology blood cell counts blood films blood sample centrifugation Clinical Chemistry counting chambers Coverslips cuvettes DIAGNOSTIC RELIABILITY DIAGNOSTIC SENSITIVITY diluted direct read-out machine disease distressed economic countries Distressed Economy GRIN District hospital laboratories economic destressed laboratories economic distressed countries ensure ESSENTIAL HAEMATOLOGY TESTS external quality assessment facilities Haematology equipment HAEMOGLOBIN COLOUR SCALE Haemoglobin estimation Hb estimation health centres HEMOCUE BLOOD high quality HIV/AIDS INTERNAL QUALITY CONTROL laboratory managers laboratory staff laboratory tests maintenance malária MANUAL CELL COUNTS microscope mixed monitoring Neubauer or improved number of tests PACKED CELL VOLUME patients performed peripheral Peter Okeke Haematology pipette PLATELET COUNT poorer countries Practice In Distressed problems public health reagents red blood cells red cells requires rural laboratory Samples containing haemoglobin screening test small squares technical quality technologist test method thalassaemia transfusion tuberculosis white blood cell white cells